Table 1

Study inclusion and exclusion criteria

Inclusion criteriaExclusion criteria
1. Aged between 18 and 65 years1. Medication managed psychological illness
2. Report chronic low back pain with or without pain radiating into the lower limbs for at least 3 months67 68 2. Previous spinal and lower limb surgery
3. Demonstrate moderate or greater disability on the ODI (ie, 21% or greater)3. Diagnosed spinal osteoporosis/osteopaenia
4. Diagnosed unstable spondylolisthesis/spondylolysis
5. Diagnosed active systemic/inflammatory joint disease
6. Diagnosed neurological and developmental disorders
7. Overt neurological sign (absence of lower limb reflex or motor paralysis)
8. Diagnosed significant medical conditions such as cancer or major cardiac diseases
9. History of abdo-pelvic organ prolapse
10.Use of medications that may influence balance
11.Patients funded by a compensable body
12.Inability to understand written/spoken English
14.<6 months postpartum
  • ODI, Oswestry Disability Index.