Table 2

Changes in harm awareness regarding SHS and attitudes towards smoking bans and smoking restrictions among smokers between 2005 and 2010

%beta (95% CI)
2005 (W1)2008 (W2)2010 (W3)2008 versus 2005 (reference)2010 versus 2005 (reference)2010
versus 2008 (reference)
Harm awareness of secondhand smoke exposure
Smoking causes lung cancer in non-smokers
 Yes79.285.0−0.37 (−0.62 to 0.11)*
 No20.815.0Ref
Smoke is dangerous to non-smokers
 Strongly agree or agree87.686.883.80.07 (−0.32 to 0.46)−0.04 (−0.54 to 0.47)−0.10 (−0.50 to 0.29)
 Neither agree nor disagree5.56.99.50.40 (−0.16 to 0.97)0.48 (−0.18 to 1.14)0.08 (−0.43 to 0.58)
 Strongly disagree or disagree6.96.36.7RefRefRef
Attitudes to smoking bans in public places
Smoking ban in workplace indoor areas
 Total ban17.730.834.40.56 (0.03 to 1.08)*0.33 (−0.32 to 0.98)−0.23 (−0.78 to 0.33)
 Partial ban78.165.761.7−0.10 (−0.60 to 0.41)−0.39 (−1.01 to 0.23)−0.30 (−0.84 to 0.25)
 No ban4.23.53.9RefRefRef
Smoking ban in restaurants and cafes indoor areas
 Total ban15.629.731.01.09 (0.71 to 1.47)*1.32 (0.82 to 1.82)*0.23 (−0.17 to 0.63)
 Partial ban71.361.762.10.38 (0.63 to 0.70)*0.67 (0.22 to 1.13)*0.29 (−0.10 to 0.68)
 No ban13.18.66.9RefRefRef
Smoking ban in drinking establishments indoor areas
 Total ban5.812.013.90.90 (0.52 to 1.28)*0.91 (0.47 to 1.34)*0.01 (−0.27 to 0.30)
 Partial ban50.349.854.60.17 (−0.03 to 0.38)0.33 (0.07 to 0.60)*0.16 (−0.06 to 0.37)
 No ban43.938.231.5RefRefRef
Smoking ban in restaurants and cafes outdoor areas
 Total ban4.19.71.99 (1.59 to 2.40)*
 Partial ban41.360.11.14 (0.92 to 1.35)*
 No ban54.630.2Ref
Smoking ban in drinking establishments outdoor areas
 Total ban3.44.60.55 (0.14 to 0.97)*
 Partial ban37.546.90.48 (0.29 to 0.68)*
 No ban59.148.5Ref
Smoking ban in bus stops
 Total ban29.944.21.05 (0.76 to 1.35)*
 Partial ban47.345.40.70 (0.41 to 0.99)*
 No ban22.810.4Ref
Smoking ban in crowded streets
 Total ban28.036.60.70 (0.44 to 0.96)*
 Partial ban43.846.10.62 (0.37 to 0.87)*
 No ban28.217.3Ref
Smoking ban in parks
 Total ban18.429.81.27 (0.98 to 1.57)*
 Partial ban56.457.60.80 (0.54 to 1.06)*
 No ban25.212.6Ref
Rules for smoking in private places
Home smoking ban
 Total ban29.243.352.20.66 (0.39 to 0.93)*0.74 (0.40 to 1.08)*0.08 (−0.17 to 0.33)
 Partial ban47.536.825.70.24 (−0.24 to 0.28)−0.54 (−0.88 to –0.20)*−0.57 (−0.85 to –0.29)*
 No ban23.319.922.1RefRefRef
Smoking restriction in automobile
 Never smoke49.464.069.91.32 (0.95 to 1.70)*1.62 (1.07 to 2.16)*0.29 (−0.20 to 0.79)
 Something in between36.629.925.70.81 (0.42 to 1.19)*0.94 (0.38 to 1.50)*0.13 (−0.38 to 0.64)
 Smoke14.06.14.4RefRefRef
  • *P value <0.05 from multinomial regression adjusted for age, gender, marital status, educational attainment, household equivalent income, cigarette consumption and time-in-sample.

  • SHS, secondhand smoking.