Table 1

Clinical characteristics of the different age groups

Characteristic or parameter50-57 years (n=196)58–68 years (n=190)69–94 years (n=194)Total (n=580)P value
Age, years53.33±1.9662.64±3.0478.57±6.8364.82±11.38<0.001
Gender (male, %)135 (68.9%)114 (60.0%)117 (60.3%)366 (63.1%)0.122
Smoking (%)71 (36.2%)56 (29.5%)39 (20.1%)166 (28.6%)0.002
CVD (%)45 (23.0%)65 (34.2%)123 (63.4%)233 (40.2%)<0.001
DM (%)82 (41.8%)91 (47.9%)112 (57.7%)285 (49.1%)0.006
BMI, kg/m2 24.96±3.1024.68±3.4024.55±3.7824.73±3.440.48
SBP, mm Hg126.88±15.47129.54±16.25139.51±18.66131.97±17.68<0.001
DBP, mm Hg83.19±10.7781.36±9.9180.13±10.781.57±10.530.015
ABI1.13±0.071.14±0.071.11±0.081.13±0.07<0.001
CAVI7.62±0.838.23±0.879.44±1.3638.43±1.29<0.001
LS BMD, g/cm2 1.13±0.171.08±0.191.09±0.231.10±0.200.068
FN BMD, g/cm2 0.91±0.130.87±0.140.79±0.150.86±0.15<0.001
TH BMD, g/cm2 0.98±0.140.94±0.140.88±0.170.94±0.16<0.001
WCC, 109/L5.97±1.575.70±1.675.85±1.475.84±1.570.24
NLR2.04±1.022.08±1.062.72±1.992.28±1.46<0.001
Fibrinogen, g/L3.22±0.783.33±0.893.52±0.883.36±0.860.003
TG, mmol/L1.80±1.231.56±1.091.26±0.611.54±1.03<0.001
TC, mmol/L4.64±0.984.52±1.023.98±1.064.38±1.06<0.001
HDL-C, mmol/L1.16±0.291.19±0.361.11±0.311.15±0.320.044
LDL-C, mmol/L2.76±0.842.68±0.902.29±0.902.58±0.90<0.001
UA, umol/L369.64±98.05344.83±100.54362.26±99.69359.04±99.790.043
ESR, mm/hour7.98±8.958.31±6.7014.28±13.2210.22±10.42<0.001
EGFR, mL/min/1.73 m2 87.146±14.3881.08±14.1560.33±15.6376.19±18.69<0.001
  • Data are expressed as the mean±SD or percentage. The p value was calculated by Student’s t-test or the χ2 test.

  • ABI, ankle brachial index; BMD, bone mineral density; LS BMD, BMD in the lumbar spine; FN BMD, femoral neck BMD; TH BMD, total hip BMD; BMI, body mass index; CAVI, cardio-ankle vascular index;CVD, cardiovascular or cerebrovascular disease; DBP, diastolic blood pressure; DM, diabetes mellitus; ESR, erythrocyte sedimentation rate; HDL-C, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; LDL-C, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol; NLR, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio; SBP, systolic blood pressure; TC, total cholesterol; TG, triglyceride; UA, uric acid; WCC, white cell count; eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate.