Table 1

List of measures collected at BA, 6M and 12M assessments 

Physical and cognitive assessments
Balance, gait and functional mobility
 Standing balance (postural sway on foam)YY*NNS
 Leaning balance (co-ordinated stability)YY*NNS
 Short performance physical performance battery (standing balance, 4-metre gait speed and five-repetition sit-to-stand)YY*NNS
 Gait variability under single-task and dual-task conditionsY*Y*NNS
 Timed up and go testY*Y*NNS
Reaction time and stepping performance
 Simple hand reaction timeYY*NNS
 Choice stepping reaction time (with and without additional cognitive tasks)YY*NNS
Cognitive performance and executive function
 Trail making tests, parts A and BY*Y*NNS
 Victoria Stroop taskY*Y*NNS
 Controlled oral word association testY*Y*NNS
 Digit span testY*Y*NNS
 Wisconsin card sorting testY*Y*NNS
 The Addenbrooke’s Cognitive Examination Revised testYY*NNS
 Pattern separation memory testY†Y†NNS
Questionnaire-based measures
 Age, gender, education, type of residence, computer and internet useYNNN
General health and function
 Disease history, medication use and detailed information on previous falls and fractures YYYN
 World Health Organisation Disability Assessment Schedule (WHODAS 2.0)YYYNS
  Late Life Function and Disability Instrument (LLFDI)YYYNS
  Lifetime of Experience Questionnaire (LEQ)Y†NNN
  Attitudes to Falls-Related Interventions Scale (AFRIS)Y‡NNN
 Concern about falling (Iconographical Falls Efficacy Scale)YYYNS
 Generalised Anxiety Disorder Scale (GAD-7)YYYNS
 Patient Health Questionnaire for depressive symptoms (PHQ-9)YYYNS
Health-related quality of life
 Quality of life (EuroQOL EQ-5D)YYYNS
Physical activity levels
 Self-report physical activity (Incidental and Planned Exercise Questionnaire)YYNNS
 Structural MRI (brain structural plasticity)Y†Y†NNS
 Diffusion tractography imaging (white matter plasticity)Y†Y†NNS
 Resting state function MRI (brain functional network plasticity)Y†Y†NNS
 1H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy (brain neurometabolic changes)Y†Y†NNS
Falls, cost and adherence
Falls (monitored monthly through a falls calendar)
 Rate of falling in each groupNNYYP
 Proportion of fallers in each groupNNYYS
 Rate of falling per weekly hours of physical activity (Incidental and Planned Exercise Questionnaire)NNYYS
Cost-effectiveness of the intervention
 Intervention costsNNYYS
 Medical costsNNYYS
Participant adherence to the intervention and system use
 Average weekly training duration (recorded by the system and monitored following data transfer to server)NNY‡YPr
 Total training duration (recorded by the system and monitored following data transfer to server)NNY‡YPr
 System Usability Scale (SUS) NY‡Y‡NPr
 Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale (PACES)NY‡Y‡NPr
  • *In a subsample of 300 participants (100 per group).

  • †In a subsample of 105 participants (35 per group).

  • ‡In intervention group participants only.

  • 12M, 12-month assessment; 6M, 6-month assessment; BA, baseline assessment; Cont, continuous assessment (monthly); N, No; O, outcome; P, primary; Pr, Process; S, secondary; Y, yes.