Table 1

Final attributes and levels

Number of different medications taken on most days for pain0, 2, 4,6
Known side effects of medications for painMild, moderate/severe
Pain interference with daily activitiesNever; sometimes; most of the time; always
Pain care is managed byGP only; pain specialist; multidisciplinary pain management team; myself
Risk of addiction to pain medicationRisk of 3 in 100 people or 25 in 100 people who are taking strong pain medications*
Activity goals of treatmentAble to undertake activities of daily living; do exercises at home, including walking, most days; participate in regular exercise classes (gym/hydrotherapy classes); practice mindfulness regularly
Source of information on pain and pain managementNone; from a doctor; by reading/online; from a pain management course
Out-of-pocket costs per month (ie, for medications, doctor, physio or psychologist visits, or other activities you would need to pay for to help you manage your pain)$50, $100, $200 or $300 per month
  • *Initial choice of four levels decreased to two after pilot study, see below.

  • GP, general practitioner.