Table 1

Description for the dependent and independent variables

CategoriesIndicators/Survey questions
Dependent variables
OOPPE for outpatientReported out-of-pocket expenditure for outpatient services.
The amount of OOPPE for outpatient services.
How much will you eventually pay out-of-pocket for the medications, including prescriptions obtained during your most recent physician visits last month?
OOPPE for inpatientReported out-of-pocket expenditure for inpatient services.
The amount of OOPPE for inpatient services.
How much did you pay out-of-pocket for medication costs during your most recent inpatient care last year?
OOPPE for self-medicationReported out-of-pocket expenditure for self-medication.
The amount of OOPPE for self-medication.
How much did you pay out-of-pocket for self-medication last month?
Independent variables
Predisposing factors
EducationLess than lower secondaryWhat is the highest level of education you obtained?
Upper secondary and vocational training
Marital statusMarried/PartneredWhat is your marital status?
Enabling factors
InsuranceNo social health insuranceAre you the policy holder/primary beneficiary of any of the types of health insurance options listed below?
Urban Employee Medical Insurance (UEMI)
Urban Resident Medical Insurance (URMI)
New Cooperative Medical Insurance (NCMI)
Urban and Rural Resident Medical Insurance (URRMI)
IncomeLow-income group (≤US$1639)Total income includes money earned by labour, pension and money provided as support by relatives over the past year.
Median-income group (US$1639–US$8197)
High-income group (>US$8197)
Need factors
Self-reported healthVery good/Good/Fair/Poor/Very PoorWould you say your health is very good, good, fair, poor or very poor?
ADLWithout ADL/with any ADLRespondents reported any problems with activities including dressing, bathing, eating, getting in or out of bed, using the toilet, controlling urination and defaecation.
IADLWithout IADL/with any IADLRespondents reported any problems with instrumental activities including managing money, taking medications, shopping for groceries, preparing meals, cleaning the house and making phone calls.
Chronic diseasesNo chronic diseasesHave you been diagnosed with any common chronic diseases (hypertension, dyslipidaemia, diabetes, stroke)?
One chronic disease
Multiple chronic diseases
Critical diseaseNo critical diseaseHave you been diagnosed with any critical diseases (cancer, stroke, psychiatric problems, heart attack)?
One or multiple critical diseases
BMI<18.5/18.5–24/≥24BMI (calculated as weight divided by height squared).
DrinkingNever drank/ever drankRespondent reported whether they drank alcoholic beverages in the past.
SmokingNever smoked/ever smokedRespondent reports whether they smoked in the past.
  • The UEMI for those who were employed in the urban sector was formally established in 1998. After this, the NCMI for rural residents as well as URMI covering urban residents who had no formal employment were introduced in 2003 and 2007, respectively. In 2012, the integration of URMI and NCMI was gradually carried out nationwide to form URRMI.

  • ADL, activities of daily living limitations; BMI, body mass index; IADL, instrumental activities of daily living limitations; OOPPE, out-of-pocket pharmaceutical expenditure.