Table 3

OOPPE among middle-aged and elderly individuals (US$)

OOPPE for outpatient servicesOOPPE for inpatient servicesOOPPE for self-medication
MeanSDMeanSDMeanSD
Predisposing factors
Age
≤506.4039.0724.10440.0312.6842.02
50–656.8682.7215.23120.9716.0252.03
>656.4350.3319.25178.7615.6648.02
Gender
Male6.3984.2517.00131.7314.5650.03
Female6.9050.8918.75285.6115.9948.62
Education
Less than lower secondary6.6871.5015.59138.2214.6446.17
Upper secondary and vocational training6.9839.5037.69595.9020.9571.71
Tertiary2.9410.9931.78184.1520.3250.71
Marital status
Married/Partnered6.6970.9318.39237.3615.6250.53
Separated/Divorced/Widowed/Single6.4249.0214.71130.9313.1939.42
Enabling factors
Insurance
No basic insurance5.4240.8314.93130.7811.9936.27
UEMI7.2348.8620.35150.6222.3465.45
URMI7.7141.1960.84873.5923.6473.98
NCMI6.6774.0615.54137.1614.0245.35
URRMI4.0616.8612.0069.8619.2253.61
Income
Low-income group7.1676.1919.10251.3714.7648.23
Median-income group4.2019.8014.22121.9816.8149.96
High-income group8.1663.2414.01104.4918.2260.61
Living
Rural7.0776.5916.06143.5113.4443.75
Urban5.8950.5621.37329.2818.8057.99
Needing factors
Self-reported health
Very good4.4758.829.2873.715.0717.40
Good1.1210.6510.1298.487.4824.34
Fair4.8335.0912.47105.8712.9741.85
Poor13.90132.4126.41194.1225.3767.32
Very poor16.3764.9380.70871.6839.3293.15
ADL
Without ADL5.8566.5816.90237.7213.4845.28
With any ADL10.6177.5622.97163.1524.3664.74
IADL
Without IADL5.9969.2016.38243.9913.6044.47
With any IADL8.9966.3423.32153.0421.2762.86
Chronic diseases
No chronic diseases4.9669.4916.50274.3811.2844.04
One chronic disease8.2674.0213.7793.8717.9249.81
Multiple chronic diseases11.3448.4334.07173.0729.1866.39
Critical disease
No critical disease4.4958.7912.52131.1711.5040.52
One or multiple critical diseases13.9493.9336.06407.4028.1469.70
BMI
<18.56.7237.9416.85101.9613.9347.66
18.5–245.4864.4617.66289.4412.9241.31
≥247.9375.6518.36147.4118.1156.75
Drinking
Never drank6.3347.5717.49272.3915.2344.49
Ever drank7.0788.1618.48151.2915.4354.73
Smoking
Never smoked6.3147.8720.19280.2915.5648.52
Ever smoked7.1389.4014.85120.4415.0050.31
Total6.6668.5817.93226.8415.3249.29
  • Calculations were weighted using individual sampling weights and adjusted for household and individual responses.

  • ADL, activities of daily living limitations; BMI, body mass index; IADL, instrumental activities of daily living limitations; NCMI, New Cooperative Medical Insurance; OOPPE, out-of-pocket pharmaceutical expenditure; UEMI, Urban Employee Medical Insurance; URMI, Urban Resident Medical Insurance; URRMI, Urban and Rural Resident Medical Insurance.