Table 4

Logistic regression on the OOPPE among middle-aged and elderly adults

OOPPE for outpatient servicesOOPPE for inpatient servicesOOPPE for self-medication
ORSEORSEORSE
Predisposing factors
Age, ref: ≤50
50–650.74***0.050.69**0.080.86**0.05
>650.62***0.060.73**0.100.73***0.05
Gender, ref: male0.75***0.060.47***0.060.86**0.05
Education, ref: less than lower secondary
Upper secondary and vocational training1.010.111.140.181.000.08
Tertiary0.760.221.240.470.950.18
Marital status, ref: married/partnered1.030.090.890.130.87**0.06
Enabling factors
Insurance, ref: no basic insurance
UEMI0.60***0.090.62**0.140.940.11
URMI0.48***0.080.45**0.121.050.14
NCMI0.50***0.050.37***0.050.890.07
URRMI0.42***0.100.34**0.121.020.17
Income, ref: low-income group
Median-income group0.81**0.080.55***0.090.910.06
High-income group0.890.140.41***0.110.65***0.07
Living, ref: rural0.980.071.040.111.040.05
Needing factors
Self-reported health, ref: very good
Good0.43***0.060.38***0.080.970.08
Fair1.040.110.47***0.071.38***0.10
Poor1.87***0.210.850.131.95***0.16
Very poor1.69***0.251.280.252.17***0.27
ADL, ref: without ADL1.25**0.100.930.121.33***0.08
IADL, ref: without IADL1.110.081.23*0.140.980.05
Chronic disease, ref: no chronic diseases
One chronic disease1.19**0.081.27**0.141.54***0.08
Multiple chronic diseases1.32**0.141.89***0.291.91***0.16
Critical disease, ref: no critical diseases1.32***0.101.61***0.191.18**0.07
BMI, ref: ≤18.5
18.5–240.49***0.050.43***0.060.84**0.07
>240.49***0.050.40***0.060.940.08
Drinking, ref: never drank0.910.060.970.101.000.05
Smoking, ref: never smoked0.62***0.050.54***0.070.90*0.05
  • Estimates were weighted using individual sampling weights and adjusted for household and individual responses.

  • ***P<0.001, **p<0.01, *p<0.05.

  • ADL, activities of daily living limitations; BMI, body mass index; IADL, instrumental activities of daily living limitations; NCMI, New Cooperative Medical Insurance; OOPPE, out-of-pocket pharmaceutical expenditure; Ref, Reference; UEMI, Urban Employee Medical Insurance; URMI, Urban Resident Medical Insurance; URRMI, Urban and Rural Resident Medical Insurance.