Table 5

Multiple regression model evaluation of OOPPE among middle-aged and elderly adults

OOPPE for outpatient servicesOOPPE for inpatient servicesOOPPE for self-medication
CoefficientSECoefficientSECoefficientSE
Predisposing factors
Age, ref: ≤50
50–65−0.010.020.010.020.020.03
>65−0.04*0.020.030.02−0.020.03
Gender, ref: male0.04*0.02−0.03*0.010.05*0.02
Education, ref: less than lower secondary
Upper secondary and vocational training0.040.030.05**0.020.06*0.03
Tertiary−0.030.060.090.060.100.09
Marital status, ref: married/partnered0.000.02−0.020.02−0.09**0.03
Enabling factors
Insurance, ref: no basic insurance
UEMI0.050.040.060.040.22***0.05
URMI0.050.050.060.040.28***0.06
NCMI0.06**0.020.05**0.020.19***0.04
URRMI0.030.060.040.050.28***0.08
Income, ref: low-income group
Median-income group0.000.02−0.03*0.010.020.03
High-income group0.060.04−0.060.04−0.12**0.04
Living, ref: rural0.020.020.03*0.010.07**0.03
Needing factors
Self-reported health, ref: very good
Good0.000.030.010.030.13***0.04
Fair0.14***0.020.020.020.33***0.03
Poor0.35***0.030.13***0.030.60***0.04
Very poor0.34***0.040.26***0.040.76***0.06
ADL, ref: without ADL0.06**0.02−0.010.020.14***0.03
IADL, ref: without IADL0.05**0.020.05**0.020.020.03
Chronic disease, ref: no chronic diseases
One chronic disease0.04**0.020.020.020.20***0.02
Multiple chronic diseases0.06**0.030.10***0.030.29***0.04
Critical disease, ref: no critical diseases0.12***0.020.08***0.020.18***0.03
BMI, ref: ≤18.5
18.5–240.000.030.010.030.13***0.04
>240.010.030.010.030.19***0.04
Drinking, ref: never drank0.000.020.03*0.010.030.02
Smoking, ref: never smoked−0.030.02−0.03*0.010.040.03
  • Estimates were weighted using individual sampling weights and adjusted for household and individual responses.

  • ***P<0.001, **p<0.01, *p<0.05.

  • ADL, activities of daily living limitations; BMI, body mass index; IADL, instrumental activities of daily living limitations; NCMI, New Cooperative Medical Insurance; OOPPE, out-of-pocket pharmaceutical expenditure; Ref, Reference; UEMI, Urban Employee Medical Insurance; URMI, Urban Resident Medical Insurance; URRMI, Urban and Rural Resident Medical Insurance.