Table 1

Variables included in analysis* 

Description
Independent variables
 Exposure to DV†30 CAS items measured 12 month and lifetime intimate partner violence and 2 family violence questions.
 DV training‡§6 items measured graduate and postgraduate DV training history (<8 hours‡/>8 hours).¶
 Demographics**3 items measured: age (<40 years/>40 years), professional background (medical/nursing/allied health) and years of clinical experience (<20 years/>20 years).
Dependent variables
 Attitudes††12 PREMIS items comprised two subscales; ‘Victim understanding’ (attitudes about survivors) and ‘Workplace issues’ (attitudes about the role of the workplace). Scoring via a 7-point Likert-type scale, with some items reverse scored due to intentional negative wording.
 Comfort discussing DV§4 items scored on a 5-point Likert-type scale measured comfort to discuss DV and sexual assault with patients (‘comfortable’/‘uncomfortable’).
4 items scored on a 6-point Likert-type scale measured: ‘Did not avoid issue of DV’, ‘Did not find DV upsetting to talk about’, ‘Very aware of the issue’ and ‘Tried to go the extra mile with patients’ (‘agree’/‘disagree’). Some items reverse scored due to intentional negative wording.
 DV inquiry§1 item scored on a 5-point Likert-type scale measured frequency of asking all  patients about DV (‘never’/‘ever’) during the previous 6 months.
5 items measured identification of 1+ new patient survivor/s (‘0 new cases’/‘1+ new cases’) in the previous 6 months.
 Interventions after identifying a new DV case§10 items scored on a 5-point Likert-type scale measured: risk assessment, safety planning, case file documentation, use of clinical guideline, access of DV information to give to patients, clinical discussion at team meeting and with manager and DV referrals (‘never’/‘1–3+ times’) during the previous 6 months.
Variables used for adjustment§
 Age>40 years
 Professional backgroundAllied health: social workers were the most common allied health professionals at this hospital and it was anticipated that they would likely have been in receipt of greater undergraduate and professional DV training.
 DV training>8 hours
 Years of clinical experience>10 years
  • *All items/measures were made into binary variables unless otherwise noted.

  • †Exposure to DV measured via CAS.16

  • ‡Training also analysed as an outcome (dependent) variable.

  • §Bespoke item developed for the survey based on an extensive review of the literature.

  • ¶Participants with no DV training were included in ‘<8 hours’.

  • **Demographic measures based on recruitment site specific data and Australian Institute of Health and Welfare.19

  • ††Attitudes measured via PREMIS.17

  • CAS, Composite Abuse Scale; DV, domestic violence; PREMIS, Physician Readiness to Manage Intimate Partner Violence Survey.