Table 2

Description of sample

TotalOOPPE for outpatient servicesOOPPE for inpatient servicesOOPPE for self-medication
N=9932n=1518n=516n=5100
Predisposing factors
Age (%)
≤5017.9117.9014.5317.80
50–6554.5554.3051.9455.50
>6527.5427.9033.5326.70
Gender (%)
Male46.8940.3048.0645.60
Female53.1159.7051.9454.40
Education (%)
Less than lower secondary89.0589.7087.6089.30
Upper secondary and vocational training9.579.3010.669.40
Tertiary1.391.101.741.30
Marital status (%)
Married/Partnered87.5586.6087.0288.10
Separated/Divorced/Widowed/Single12.4513.4012.9811.90
Enabling factors
Insurance (%)
No basic insurance4.824.303.493.90
UEMI10.449.8010.8510.20
URMI4.383.904.464.80
NCMI78.2980.1079.2678.90
URRMI2.061.901.94%2.20
Income (%)
Low-income group76.1579.3080.4377.20
Median-income group18.6315.7014.9218.40
High-income group5.234.904.654.40
Living (%)
Rural64.8665.2062.7964.30
Urban35.1434.8037.2135.70
Needing factors
Self-reported health (%)
Very good8.003.204.465.40
Good13.955.508.1411.00
Fair53.1349.1040.8952.70
Poor20.1834.1033.7224.70
Very poor4.738.1012.796.20
ADL (%)
Without ADL83.0875.2075.7879.50
With any ADL16.9224.8024.2220.50
IADL (%)
Without IADL77.6370.4066.8675.60
With any IADL22.3729.6033.1424.40
Chronic diseases (%)
No chronic diseases60.1649.7042.6452.40
One chronic disease27.4431.4031.2031.30
Multiple chronic diseases12.4018.8026.1616.40
Critical disease (%)
No critical disease77.0366.1056.7871.60
One or multiple critical diseases22.9733.9043.2228.40
BMI (%)
<18.55.886.906.595.20
18.5–2448.9946.0046.9046.50
≥2445.1347.2046.5148.30
Drinking (%)
Never drank55.6959.4053.1055.90
Ever drank44.3140.6046.9044.10
Smoking (%)
Never smoked57.6863.9058.3358.30
Ever smoked42.3236.1041.6741.70
  • Calculations were weighted using individual sampling weights and adjusted for household and individual responses.

  • ADL, activities of daily living limitations; BMI, body mass index; IADL, instrumental activities of daily living limitations; NCMI, New Cooperative Medical Insurance; OOPPE, out-of-pocket pharmaceutical expenditure; UEMI, Urban Employee Medical Insurance; URMI, Urban Resident Medical Insurance; URRMI, Urban and Rural Resident Medical Insurance.