Table 2

Univariate analysis for association between individual or designated prefecture’s characteristics and emigration

Retained physiciansEmigrated physiciansP value
n (%)n (%)
Personal
Age (median (IQR))26 (25–27)27 (26–28)0.005 *
Gender
 Male509 (58.5)75 (63.6)
 Female361 (41.5)43 (36.4)0.30**
Career length (median (IQR))1 (0–2)1 (0–2)0.77 *
Graduation from a private university
 Yes110 (11.5)16 (13.6)
 No770 (88.5)102 (86.4)0.43**
Scholarship recipient
 Yes666 (76.6)79 (66.9)
 No204 (23.4)39 (33.1)0.02**
Admission as a quota
 Yes565 (64.9)65 (55.1)
 No305 (35.1)53 (44.9)0.04**
Concordance between home and designated prefectures
 Same702 (80.7)84 (71.2)
 Different168 (19.3)34 (28.8)0.02**
Concordance between medical school and designated prefectures
 Same781 (89.8)89 (75.4)
 Different89 (10.2)29 (24.6)<0.001**
Having a right to postpone obligatory service
 Yes480 (55.2)71 (60.2)
 No390 (44.8)47 (39.8)0.32**
Duty period (median (IQR))7 (3–9)6 (2–9)0.001 *
Regional (designated prefecture)
Population density of the designated prefecture0.19 (0.14–0.32)0.19 (0.13–0.3)0.64 *
Having an ordinance-designated city or special wards in the prefecture
 Yes266 (30.6)30 (25.4)
 No604 (69.4)88 (74.6)0.25**
  • *Wilcoxon rank-sum test.

  • **Χ2 test.