Table 2

Average response levels in three surveys

Number and description of survey question
The percentages of individuals that ‘definitely’ (5.0) wanted an answer to each question below is shown in bold in the columns
Student nurses (n=76)
(% 5.0)
HPESS group
(n=63)
(% 5.0)
National group
(n=1067)
(%5.0)
National ranges over 10 income GroupsNational ranges over nine regions of the USA
1. Would you like to know all your treatment choices, including alternatives and risks and benefits of each choice for a patient like you. Your choices may include invasive procedures (surgery, endoscopic procedures, insertion of a medical device), non-invasive treatments, and what happens if you do nothing?4.92
(92%)
4.94
(95%)
4.58
(75%)
4.33–4.974.51–4.65
2. Drugs that have not been approved by the Food and Drug Administration for your condition are off-label for you. Drugs prescribed off-label are about twice as likely to cause serious side-effects as drugs prescribed on-label. Would you like to know if any drugs prescribed to you are off-label, and what their side effects may be?4.89*
(89%)
4.51
(67%)
4.40
(67%)
4.07–4.714.26–4.57
3. Drugs assigned a ‘black box’ warning by the Food and Drug Administration pose an especially serious risk of harm. If you are prescribed such a drug, would you want to know the reasons for the black box warning and if there are alternatives before you take it?4.83
(83%)
4.67
(79%)
4.57
(78%)
4.27–4.924.43–4.69
4. Decision aids are created to assist patients with complex medical decisions and to help them understand the risks and benefits of treatment options. If there is a decision-aid available for your illness, would you like to review it?4.66
(73%)
4.65
(70%)
4.41
(61%)
4.07–4.694.28–4.57
5. If you are considering an invasive procedure, would you like to know who will be performing it, their skill level, and how trainee doctors, if any, will be involved?4.83
(84%)
4.78
(84%)
4.49
(68%)
4.34–4.824.41–4.63
6. Assuming you have decided on a procedure or treatment, would you like to know what your total, out-of-pocket costs will be?4.71
(79%)
4.60
(68%)
4.48
(69%)
4.21–4.764.41–4.52
7. You have a trusted family member that is willing to act as your advocate. Would you like for that person to be present during shared-decision making about your medical care?4.65*
(73%)
4.54
(62%)
4.31
(54%)
4.09–4.694.20–4.43
8. If you are well enough, would you like to be offered a chance to review and make entries in your medical records each day while you are hospitalised?4.07
(47%)
4.06
(48%)
3.98
(38%)
3.41–4.233.89–4.11
9. Before signing any documents permitting invasive, non-emergency procedures would you like to review these at least one full day in advance of the procedure?4.29
(49%)
4.19
(52%)
4.18
(47%)
3.91–4.413.87–4.34
10. If you are considering an invasive procedure, would you like to know your expected difficulties, recovery times, pain management and restrictions after the procedure while hospitalised and after discharge from the hospital? This includes the risk of infection from the invasive procedure.4.84
(86%)
4.89
(90%)
4.60
(76%)
4.32–4.854.49–4.70
  • 4.0 indicates the person ‘probably’ wants an answer and 5.0 indicates the person ‘definitely’ wants an answer. The percentage of the 5.0 responses are shown in bold. In the national survey, 71% of the reported income levels were from US$10 000 to US$99 000. Of the nine geographic regions of the USA, 54% of responses were from three of those—East North central, South Atlantic and Pacific.

  • *n=75.

  • †n=62.

  • HPESS, Health Professions Educators Summer Symposium.