Table 1

Prevalence of underweight (moderate and severe) in relation to demographic, socioeconomic, environmental and spatial characteristics in Punjab (MICS 2014)

VariablesN (%) TotalN (%) (Underweight <−2 SD)χ2 P valueN (%) (Underweight <−3 SD)χP value
24 0428010 (33.32)2704 (11.25)
Sex
 Male12 2144005 (33)0.2081325 (11)0.075
 Female11 8283988 (34)1377 (12)
Age
 0–52083635 (30)<0.001260 (13)<0.001
 6–112641826 (31)299 (11)
 12–2346171604 (35)589 (13)
 24–3546471621 (35)559 (12)
 36–4751631787 (35)581(11)
 48–5948911520 (31)414 (8)
Ethnicity
 Urdu1199317 (26)<0.00181 (7)<0.001
 Punjabi15 4754797 (31)1532 (10)
 Saraiki58372325 (40)890 (15)
 Others1531553 (36)198 (13)
Birth order
 First15 6824925 (31)<0.0011522 (10)<0.001
 Second70412551 (36)939 (13)
 Third (and up)1319516 (39)241(18)
Size at birth
 Large1052275 (26)<0.00170 (7)<0.001
 Average88812798 (32)917 (10)
 Small26251178 (45)470 (18)
Diarrhoea
 Yes42011593 (38)<0.001632 (15)<0.001
 No19 8416400 (32)2069 (10)
Breast feeding
 Yes13 3614497 (34)0.0211607 (12)<0.001
 No670205 (31)101 (15)
Gender of household head
 Male23 4017789 (33)0.3592638 (11)0.835
 Female640204 (32)63 (10)
Smoking mother
 No22 4727342 (33)<0.0012475 (11)<0.001
 Yes1569651 (41)226 (14)
Mother’s age
 <181712611 (36)0.027214 (12)0.588
 18–2451971687 (32)558 (11)
 25–3513 8764543 (33)1528 (11)
 36+32571152 (35)402 (12)
Mother’s education
 Illiterate11 8534872 (41)<0.0011867 (16)<0.001
 Primary43061421 (33)428 (10)
 Middle2370637 (27)166 (7)
 Secondary2951689 (23)162 (5)
 Higher2563373 (15)79 (3)
Father’s education
 Illiterate70943087 (44)<0.0011234 (17)<0.001
 Primary43381619 (37)549 (13)
 Middle39481241(31)375 (9)
 Secondary52691406 (27)384 (7)
 Higher3393638 (19)159 (5)
Antenatal care
 1–4 visits61982197 (35)<0.001683 (11)<0.001
 5+ visits3902964 (25)296 (8)
Child delivery
 Home54732251 (41)<0.001857 (16)<0.001
 Hospitals71402025 (28)608 (9)
Wealth index
 Poor10 8394582 (42)<0.0011779 (16)<0.001
 Middle46871487 (32)446 (10)
 Rich85151924 (23)476 (6)
Household size
 Size 3–42868936 (33)<0.001303 (11)0.015
 Size 5–671092366 (33)770 (11)
 Size 7–860032141(36)760 (13)
 Size>880602549 (32)868 (11)
Sanitation
 Unimproved69693021 (43)<0.0011188 (17)<0.001
 Improved17 0734972 (29)1513 (9)
Water facilities
 Unimproved1411380 (27)<0.001100 (7)<0.001
 Improved22 6317613 (34)2602 (11)
Water treatment
 Treated1454311 (21)<0.00183 (6)<0.001
 Untreated22 5877682 (34)2619 (12)
 Yes14 9184306 (29)1256 (8)
Media exposure total (t otal= newspaper+ radio+ TV)
 No84143473 (41)<0.0011372 (16)<0.001
 Yes15 6274519 (29)1329 (9)
Female health worker visit (PNC)
 No77562596 (33)0.965880 (11)0.695
 Yes47541653 (35)576 (12)
Division level situation
 Rawalpindi1819387 (21)<0.001102 (6)<0.001
 Bahawalpur28471158 (41)451 (16)
 D.G. Khan27211165 (43)455 (17)
 Faisalabad30241031 (34)329 (11)
 Gujranwala3087780 (25)229 (7)
 Lahore41521235 (30)382 (9)
 Multan2769987 (36)335 (12)
 Sahiwal1814636 (35)217 (12)
 Sargodha1807611 (34)201 (11)
 Regional level
 Urban74472002 (27)<0.001554 (7)<0.001
 Rural16 5955991 (36)2147 (13)