Table 3

Age-adjusted and gender-adjusted prevalence and causes of visual impairment (VI): comparison of the 2011–2012 and 2017 studies (≥50 years)

KhammamWarangal
20122017Change %P values20122017Change %P values
(n=1191)(n=1546)(n=1357)(n=1789)
Moderate VI 16.9 (14.8–19.1) 16.2 (14.4–18.2) −0.7 0.697 13.8 (12.1–15.8) 18.9 (17.2–20.8) 5.1 <0.001
 Cataract3.1 (2.2–4.3)6.8 (5.6–8.2)3.7<0.0014.3 (3.3–5.5)8.2 (7.0–9.6)3.9<0.001
 Refractive errors13.5 (11.5–15.5)8.2 (6.9–9.7)−5.3<0.0019.04 (7.6–10.7)9.5 (8.2–11.0)0.50.637
 Others0.3 (0.1–0.9)1.2 (0.7–1.9)0.90.0040.5 (0.2–1.1)1.2 (0.7–1.8)0.70.052
Blindness 8.8 (7.3–10.6) 3.8 (2.9–4.9) −5.0 <0.001 10.1 (8.5–11.8) 4.8 (3.9–5.9) −5.3 <0.001
 Cataract6.6 (5.3–8.2)2.8 (2.0–3.7)−3.8<0.0018.0 (6.6–9.6)3.9 (3.1–4.9)−4.1<0.001
 Refractive errors1.3 (0.7–2.1)0.5 (0.2–1.0)−0.80.0351.4 (0.8–2.2)0.4 (0.2–0.9)−1.00.004
 Others0.9 (0.5–1.6)0.5 (0.2–1.0)−0.40.2050.7 (0.4–1.4)0.5 (0.2–1.0)−0.20.402
All VI 25.7 (23.2–28.3) 20.0 (18.0–22.0) −5.7 0.001 23.9 (21.6–26.2) 23.7 (21.7–25.7) −0.2 0.890
 Cataract9.7 (8.1–11.6)9.6 (8.2–11.2)−0.10.92912.3 (10.6–14.2)12.1 (10.6 13.7)−0.20.843
 Refractive errors14.8 (12.8–16.9)8.7 (7.4–10.3)−6.1<0.00110.4 (8.8–12.1)9.9 (8.6–11.4)−0.50.674
 Others1.2 (0.6–2.0)1.7 (1.2–2.5)0.50.2231.2 (0.7–2.0)1.7 (1.2–2.5)0.50.277