Table 2

Age-adjusted and gender-adjusted prevalence and causes of visual impairment: comparison between studies in 2011–2012 and 2017 (≥40 years)

KhammamWarangal
20122017Change %P values20122017Change %P values
(n=2485)(n=2711)(n=2438)(n=2646)
Moderate visual impairment 10.1 (8.9–11.4) 10.6 (9.5–11.8) 0.5 0.566 9.3 (8.2–10.5) 12.3 (11.1–13.6) 3.0 0.001
 Cataract1.8 (1.3–2.4)4.2 (3.5–5.0)2.4<0.0012.7 (2.1–3.4)5.0 (4.2–5.9)2.3<0.001
 Refractive errors8.1 (7.1–9.3)5.5 (4.7–6.4)−2.6<0.0016.1 (5.2–7.1)6.5 (5.6–7.5)0.40.607
 Others0.2 (0.0–0.4)0.9 (0.6–1.3)0.7<0.0010.5 (0.2–0.8)0.8 (0.5–1.2)0.30.123
Blindness 5.4 (4.5–6.3) 2.4 (1.9–3.1) −3.0 <0.001 6.5 (5.5–7.5) 3.0 (2.4–3.7) −3.5 <0.001
 Cataract4.0 (3.2–4.8)1.7 (1.3–2.3)−2.3<0.0015.3 (4.4–6.3)2.3 (1.8–3.0)−3.0<0.001
 Refractive errors0.9 (0.6–1.3)0.3 (0.1–0.6)−0.60.0080.7 (0.4–1.1)0.3 (0.1–0.6)−0.40.025
 Others0.5 (0.3–0.9)0.4 (0.2–0.7)−0.10.5330.5 (0.2–0.8)0.4 (0.2–0.7)−0.10.684
All visual impairment 15.5 (14.1–16.9) 13.0 (11.7–14.3) −2.5 <0.001 15.8 (14.4–17.3) 15.3 (13.9–16.8) −0.5 0.600
 Cataract5.8 (4.9–6.8)5.9 (5.0–6.9)0.10.8258.0 (7.0–9.1)7.3 (6.3–8.4)−0.70.400
 Refractive errors9.0 (7.9–10.2)5.8 (4.9–6.7)−3.2<0.0016.8 (5.8–7.9)6.8 (5.9–7.8)0.00.908
 Others0.7 (0.4–1.1)1.3 (0.9–1.8)0.60.0281.0 (0.6–1.5)1.2 (0.8–1.7)0.20.345