Table 6

Linear regression models assessing association between sociodemographic, healthcare, health factors, primary care dimension mean scores and types of health facilities with unstandardised beta values among 962 patients attending outpatient clinics in South West zone, Malawi, in July–August 2018

Total Primary careFirst contact accessCommunication continuityContinuity
relational
CoordinationServices
available
Services
provided
Community
orientation
B (SE)B (SE)B (SE)B (SE)B (SE)B (SE)B (SE)B (SE)
Reference17.12 (0.55)3.10 (0.14)3.47 (0.15)1.77 (0.16)2.96 (0.51)3.05 (0.11)2.39 (0.19)3.37 (0.17)
Sex (Ref: M)†
 Female−0.29 (0.20)0.04 (0.05)−0.09 (0.05)−0.11 (0.06)*0.25 (0.21)−0.09 (0.04)*−0.08 (0.07)0.03 (0.06)
Age (Ref: 18–30 years)†
 30–45 years−0.24 (0.21)0.08 (0.05)−0.15 (0.06)**0.02 (0.06)−0.14 (0.18)−0.01 (0.04)−0.13 (0.07)−0.05 (0.07)
 45–60 years−0.35 (0.30)−0.01 (0.07)−0.31 (0.08)**0.09 (0.09)0.10 (0.28)0.05 (0.06)−0.12 (0.10)−0.05 (0.09)
 >60 years0.07 (0.45)0.09 (0.11)−0.04 (0.12)0.13 (0.13)−0.46 (0.47)−0.01 (0.09)−0.18 (0.16)0.09 (0.14)
Education (Ref: 0–5 years primary)†
 Primary 6–80.34 (0.23)0.07 (0.06)0.12 (0.06)*0.02 (0.07)0.14 (0.22)−0.01 (0.05)0.15 (0.08)−0.002 (0.07)
 Sec school0.47 (0.25)0.07 (0.06)0.004 (0.07)0.09 (0.07)0.18 (0.22)−0.04 (0.05)0.15 (0.09)0.20 (0.08)*
 Post sec school0.17 (0.45)0.08 (0.11)−0.03 (0.12)−0.003 (0.13)0.66 (0.41)0.03 (0.09)0.19 (0.16)−0.10 (0.14)
Time to walk to HF (Ref: <30 mins)†
 30–60 mins−0.23 (0.23)0.001 (0.06)−0.05 (0.07)−0.11 (0.07)−0.18 (0.21)0.01 (0.05)0.09 (0.08)−0.15 (0.07)*
 >60 mins−0.51 (0.23)*−0.12 (0.06)*−0.09 (0.06)−0.19 (0.07)**−0.37 (0.21)0.05 (0.05)0.04 (0.08)−0.21 (0.07)**
Disability (Ref: No)†
 Yes0.06 (0.29)−0.09 (0.07)0.05 (0.08)−0.03 (0.08)−0.24 (0.24)0.03 (0.06)0.18 (0.10)−0.08 (0.09)
Employment (Ref: Yes)†
 No−0.14 (0.21)0.04 (0.05)0.14 (0.06)*−0.19 (0.06)**0.08 (0.20)0.04 (0.04)−0.03 (0.07)−0.14 (0.07)*
Visits frequency in 2 years (Ref: 3–5)†
 >5 times0.16 (0.19)−0.09 (0.05)0.13 (0.05)*−0.16 (0.06)**−0.21 (0.17)0.02 (0.04)0.18 (0.07)0.07 (0.06)
Self-rated health (Ref: VP/P/F)†
 G/VG0.43 (0.19)*0.05 (0.05)0.05 (0.05)0.10 (0.06)0.08 (0.17)0.06 (0.04)0.09 (0.07)0.18 (0.06)**
Satisfaction (Ref: VP/P/F)†
 G/VG1.41 (0.19)**0.07 (0.05)0.37 (0.05)**0.24 (0.06)**0.35 (0.17)*0.17 (0.04)**0.18 (0.07)0.39 (0.06)**
Years affiliated with HF(Ref: 6 months to 2 years)†
 2–4 years−0.14 (0.36)−0.01 (0.09)−0.08 (0.10)0.04 (0.10)−0.61 (0.39)−0.03 (0.07)−0.02 (0.12)−0.05 (0.11)
 >4 years−0.19 (0.26)0.02 (0.07)−0.11 (0.07)0.03 (0.08)−0.33 (0.24)−0.11 (0.05)*0.02 (0.09)−0.04 (0.08)
Type of health facility (Ref: Neno hosp)‡
 Neno HCs−0.11 (0.33)−0.07 (0.08)0.02 (0.09)0.66 (0.10)**1.03 (0.35)**−0.68 (0.07)**0.20 (0.12)−0.25 (0.10)
 Thyolo HCs3.77 (0.30)**−1.35 (0.07)**−0.12 (0.08)0.22 (0.09)*−0.89 (0.32)**−1.64 (0.06)**−0.18 (0.11)*−0.70 (0.09)**
 Thyolo hospital0.36 (0.35)−0.03 (0.09)−0.03 (0.09)0.68 (0.10)**−0.37 (0.36)0.04 (0.07)−0.18 (0.12)−0.11 (0.11)**
 Blantyre HCs2.87 (0.31)**−0.69 (0.08)**−0.17 (0.08)*−0.04 (0.09)−1.10 (0.31)**−0.83 (0.06)**−0.45 (0.11)**−0.70 (0.10)**
R230.0%37.7%9.0%15.7%22.4%54.4%5.7%14.6%
  • †Unadjusted linear regression models.

  • ‡Linear regression models adjusted for sociodemographic, healthcare and health characteristics of patients.

  • *P ≤ 0.05; **P ≤ 0.01.

  • HCs, health centres; HF, health facility.