Table 1

Measures, research questions and data collection

DimensionMeasureResearch questionsData sourceAnalysis type
ImplementationProcessHow was the intervention developed and delivered?
What inputs, resources and structures were put into place?
Team activity logs
Interviews/Focus groups
Quantitative descriptive
Fidelity (adherence)To which extent did the intervention align or diverge from the protocol or international practice? What types of adaptations were made to fit the specific context of care delivery?Trial protocol
Systematic review
Interviews/Focus groups
Quantitative descriptive
DoseWhat was the duration, coverage and frequency of the intervention?Team activity logs
Recruitment logs
Quantitative descriptive
ReachWhat proportion of the target population (eligible patients) were enrolled in the intervention?
What was the attrition rate?
Recruitment logsQuantitative
MechanismsParticipants’ responses to and interaction with interventionHow did the patients feel about being involved in the intervention?
How did other staff members feel about the intervention?
Interviews/focus groups
Data on patients’ satisfaction
Qualitative and quantitative
MediatorsWhat aspects of the intervention influenced its implementation (people, operations, relations)?Interviews/focus groupsQualitative
Unexpected pathways and consequencesWas there something about the intervention that was unexpected and might have influenced its implementation?Interviews/focus groupsQualitative
ContextBarriers and facilitatorsWhat factors external to the intervention influenced its implementation and in which way? Consider multiple levels: (1) individuals; (2) ED physical environment; (3) ED operations; (4) ED relations; (5) broader hospital or healthcare systemInterviews/focus groupsQualitative
  • Measures based on the Medical Research Council (MRC) Framework for process evaluations.1