Table 2

Results of the two-part model for smoking status on mean medical expenditures per year, 2011–2015, in 2015 US dollars

Model 1Model 2
Mean cost95% CIMean cost95% CI
Never smokerUS$43604154.3 to 4566.3US$44994219.6 to 4778.9
Current smokerUS$51444707.9 to 5580.3US$46474186.9 to 5107.0
Former smokerUS$55905267.4 to 5913.5US$50124618.4 to 5406.4
  • Model 1 included smoking and personal characteristics only.* Model 2 included personal characteristics, smoking and comorbidities.†

  • *Covariates included in model 1 were age (continuous), gender, race/ethnicity (White, African American, Asian, Hispanic origin, Other), education (No high school degree, High school or some college, At least college graduate), marital status (Single/Never married, Current married, Widowed/Divorced/Separated), Pregnancy in the prior year, employment status (Unemployed, Employed, Full-time student, Never worked, Retired), logged-total family income, insurance status (Private, Any public insurance (under age 65), Medicare/Medicaid+, Uninsured), family size, year dummy variables, any binge drinking in the prior year and BMI (Normal weight or Underweight, Overweight or Obese).

  • †In addition to the variables in model 1, a history of the following conditions were added to model 2: any cancer, diabetes, asthma, arthritis, cardiovascular disease (angina, coronary heart disease, myocardial infarction or stroke), emphysema, quality of life calculated from Short Form 12, depression calculated from the Personal Health Questionnaire and mental illness from the Kessler 6 questionnaire.