Table 1

Explanatory variables

Variable categoryNumber of variablesExplanation of variables
Charlson condition indicators170/1 indicator for the presence of the Charlson condition (ICD-9 and ICD-10 diagnoses)
Charlson score1
AHRQ’s clinical classification software condition indicators2860/1 indicator for the presence of each of the condition categories identified by the AHRQ software (ICD-9 and ICD-10 diagnoses)
AHRQ’s clinical classification software procedure indicators2310/1 indicator for the presence of each of the procedure categories identified by the AHRQ software (ICD-9 and ICD-10 procedures)
Age and gender categories2010 age categories for each gender
Medical service utilisation groups8
Long-term care indicator1
Hospice indicator1This was determined as the presence of a hospice claim in the last 120 days before 31 December, 2014
Palliative care indicator1
HMO indicator.1This was determined as six or more months of HMO coverage from the CMS LDS data
  • CMS, Centres for Medicare & Medicaid Services; HMO, health maintenance organisation; ICD, International Classification of Diseases; ICD-9, ICD – ninth revision; ICD-10, ICD - tenth revision; LDS, Limited Data Set.