Table 4

Results of patient-reported outcomes

PVB mean score (SD, n)TEB mean score (SD, n)Difference between group means (95% CI)
BPI results summary*
  Pain severity score (0–10, higher=worse pain)
   Baseline0.9 (1.7, 34)1.3 (2.0, 32)−0.4 (−1.3 to 0.5)
   24 hours post surgery5.3 (1.7, 33)3.9 (2.7, 32)1.4 (0.3 to 2.5)
   48 hours post surgery5.2 (1.7, 30)5.1 (2.5, 31)0.1 (−0.9 to 1.2)
   72 hours post surgery4.9 (1.7, 23)5.6 (2.0, 25)−0.7 (−1.8 to 0.4)
   Discharge4.0 (1.4, 31)4.1 (2.4, 32)−0.1 (−1.1 to 0.9)
   3 months1.6 (1.7, 22)2.5 (2.5, 21)0.9 (−2.2 to 0.4)
   6 months1.3 (1.8, 25)2.3 (2.6, 23)−1.0 (−2.3 to 0.3)
  Pain interference score (0–10, higher=worse pain)
   Baseline0.6 (1.3, 34)1.5 (2.2, 32)−0.9 (−1.8 to 0.1)
   24 hours post surgery5.8 (2.1, 30)5.4 (2.9, 28)0.4 (−0.8 to 1.8)
   48 hours post surgery6.0 (2.0, 30)5.8 (2.2, 27)0.2 (−0.9 to 1.3)
   72 hours post surgery5.4 (2.3, 21)5.8 (2.6, 23)−0.4 (−1.9 to 1.1)
   Discharge4.7 (2.0, 23)4.3 (2.5, 29)0.4 (−0.9 to 1.7)
   3 months1.1 (1.4, 24)2.8 (3.0, 22)−1.7 (−3.1 to 0.3)
   6 months1.6 (2.2, 27)1.9 (2.5, 25)−0.3 (−1.6 to 1.0)
NPS results summary*
  How intense does your pain feel? (0–10, higher=worse pain)
   Baseline1.7 (2.8, 33)1.8 (2.8, 33)−0.1 (−1.5 to 1.3)
   Discharge5.8 (2.8, 31)5.4 (3.8, 31)0.4 (−1.3 to 2.1)
   3 months2.2 (2.4, 25)3.6 (3.8, 21)−1.4 (−3.4 to 0.5)
   6 months2.2 (2.7, 27)2.7 (3.2, 26)−0.5 (−2.2 to 1.1)
  How sharp does your pain feel? (0–10, higher=worse pain)
   Baseline1.1 (2.8, 33)1.6 (3.4, 32)−0.5 (−2.1 to 1.1)
   Discharge5.5 (3.2, 31)5.4 (4.0, 31)0.1 (−1.7 to 1.9)
   3 months2.6 (3.0, 25)3.2 (4.0, 21)−0.6 (−2.8 to 1.5)
   6 months3.0 (3.3, 27)2.4 (3.3, 26)0.6 (−1.3 to 2.4)
  How hot does your pain feel? (0–10, higher=worse pain)
   Baseline1.0 (2.6, 33)1.3 (2.7, 32)−0.3 (−1.6 to 1.0)
   Discharge3.6 (3.4, 31)2.4 (2.9, 31)1.2 (−0.4 to 2.8)
   3 months1.6 (2.8, 25)2.5 (3.3, 21)−0.9 (−2.7 to 1.0)
   6 months1.2 (2.0, 28)1.6 (2.9, 26)−0.4 (−1.7 to 1.0)
  How dull does your pain feel? (0–10, higher=worse pain)
   Baseline1.8 (2.9, 33)1.5 (2.5, 33)0.3 (−1.0 to 1.7)
   Discharge2.9 (2.7, 30)3.9 (2.8, 30)−1.0 (−2.4 to 0.5)
   3 months2.6 (2.1, 25)3.3 (3.3, 21)−0.7 (−2.4 to 0.9)
   6 months2.1 (2.8, 28)2.3 (2.8, 26)−0.2 (−1.8 to 1.2)
  How cold does your pain feel? (0–10, higher=worse pain)
   Baseline0.3 (1.6, 33)0.4 (1.7, 32)−0.1 (−0.9 to 0.7)
   Discharge1.5 (2.5, 30)1.0 (2.2, 31)0.5 (−0.7 to 1.7)
   3 months0.2 (0.5, 25)1.5 (2.9, 21)−1.3 (−2.7 to 0.0)
   6 months0.3 (0.9, 28)0.7 (1.6, 26)−0.4 (−1.1 to 0.3)
  How sensitive is your pain? (0–10, higher=worse pain)
   Baseline0.5 (1.9, 33)1.1 (2.5, 32)−0.6 (−1.7 to 0.5)
   Discharge2.3 (2.9, 30)2.8 (2.9, 32)−0.5 (−1.9 to 1.0)
   3 months2.2 (3.0, 25)2.1 (2.7, 23)0.1 (−1.6 to 1.7)
   6 months1.6 (2.0, 28)2.5 (3.1, 26)−0.9 (−2.4 to 0.5)
  How itchy is your pain? (0–10, higher=worse pain)
   Baseline0 (0, 33)0.8 (2.0, 32)−0.8 (−1.5 to 0.0)
   Discharge2.2 (2.8, 30)2.6 (3.3, 31)−0.4 (−2.0 to 1.2)
   3 months1.2 (2.5, 25)1.8 (2.6, 22)−0.6 (−2.1 to 0.9)
   6 months0.4 (0.7, 28)2.1 (2.6, 25)−1.7 (−2.8 to 0.6)
  How unpleasant is your pain? (0–10, higher=worse pain)
   Baseline1.9 (2.9, 31)2.1 (3.3, 33)−0.2 (−1.7 to 1.4)
   Discharge6.2 (3.0, 30)5.6 (3.3, 30)0.6 (−1.1 to 2.2)
   3 months2.8 (2.6, 24)4.0 (3.9, 21)−1.2 (−3.3 to 0.8)
   6 months2.4 (2.7, 28)3.0 (3.2, 24)0.6 (−2.3 to 1.0)
  How intense is your deep pain? (0–10, higher=worse pain)
   Baseline1.3 (2.4, 32)2.4 (3.7, 33)−1.1 (−2.6 to 0.5)
   Discharge6.2 (2.8, 31)5.5 (3.4, 31)0.7 (−0.9 to 2.3)
   3 months3.0 (2.8, 23)4.1 (3.7, 21)−1.1 (−3.1 to 0.9)
   6 months2.8 (3.0, 28)2.5 (2.9, 25)0.3 (−1.4 to 1.9)
  How intense is your surface pain? (0–10, higher=worse pain)
   Baseline0.8 (2.1, 31)0.7 (1.5, 32)0.1 (−0.9 to 1.0)
   Discharge3.9 (3.4, 30)3.8 (3.3, 32)0.1 (−1.7 to 1.7)
   3 months1.9 (2.2, 24)3.5 (3.6, 21)−1.6 (−3.3 to 0.2)
   6 months1.2 (1.5, 27)2.7 (3.2, 24)−1.5 (−2.9 to 0.1)
EQ-5D-DL results summary
  EQ-5D index score (−0.59=worst outcome, 1.0=best outcome)
   Baseline0.75 (0.22, 35)0.77 (0.20, 33)−0.02 (−0.12 to 0.08)
   Discharge0.49 (0.23, 27)0.49 (0.23, 30)−0.00 (−0.12 to 0.12)
   3 months0.73 (0.17, 25)0.65 (0.23, 23)0.08 (−0.04 to 0.20)
   6 months0.72 (0.23, 25)0.69 (0.22, 25)0.03 (−0.09 to 0.16)
  EQ-5D thermometer (0–100, higher=better)
   Baseline76.6 (16.3, 34)74.3 (17.8, 33)2.3 (−5.9 to 10.7)
   Discharge60.4 (22.7, 26)60.2 (20.7, 30)0.2 (−11.5 to 11.9)
   3 months73.2 (21.2, 25)67.5 (18.3, 23)5.7 (−5.8 to 17.2)
   6 months78.0 (14.0, 25)64.4 (20.4, 25)13.6 (3.6 to 23.6)
HADS results summary
  Depression index score (0–21, lower=better)
   Baseline2.9 (2.9, 33)3.0 (2.6, 32)−0.1 (−1.4 to 1.3)
   Discharge4.3 (3.4, 28)6.0 (5.0, 28)−1.7 (−4.0 to 0.5)
   3 months3.6 (2.7, 25)5.5 (4.0, 21)−1.9 (−4.1 to 0.1)
   6 months4.5 (3.5, 24)6.0 (4.6, 25)−1.5 (−3.9 to 0.8)
  Anxiety index score (0–21, 0-lower=better)
   Baseline6.3 (5.0, 34)6.5 (4.4, 30)−0.2 (−2.6 to 2.1)
   Discharge5.0 (4.4, 29)7.0 (5.3, 28)−2.0 (−4.6 to 0.6)
   3 months5.2 (4.3, 25)6.1 (4.8, 19)−0.9 (−3.7 to 1.9)
   6 months5.7 (3.6, 24)7.3 (5.0, 25)−1.6 (−4.1 to 0.9)
  • *Scores<0 indicate less pain with PVB.

  • †Scores>0 indicate better QoL with PVB.

  • ‡Scores<0 indicate less anxiety/depression with PVB.

  • BPI, brief pain inventory; HADS, hospital anxiety and depression index score; NPS, Neuropathic Pain Scale; PVB, paravertebral blockade; QoL, quality of life; TEB, thoracic epidural blockade.