Table 2

Adjusted OR (AOR) and 95% CIs of lifetime NMUPD among all adolescents

VariablesAnySedativeOpioidStimulant
AOR (95% CI)AOR (95% CI)AOR (95% CI)AOR (95% CI)
Living arrangement
 With parents1.001.001.001.00
 With single parent1.48 (1.21 to 1.80)*1.49 (1.13 to 1.95)*1.26 (0.98 to 1.63)1.74 (1.34 to 2.27)*
 With other relatives1.43 (1.23 to 1.67)*1.52 (1.23 to 1.88)*1.48 (1.22 to 1.78)*2.03 (1.64 to 2.52)*
Economic status
 Above average1.001.001.001.00
 Average0.91 (0.80 to 1.05)0.84 (0.70 to 1.02)0.96 (0.81 to 1.14)0.83 (0.67 to 1.03)
 Below average1.35 (1.11 to 1.63)*1.52 (1.18 to 1.96)*1.31 (1.03 to 1.66)*1.52 (1.15 to 2.00)*
Parental marriage status
 Harmonious1.001.001.00
 Conflicting1.30 (1.16 to 1.47)*1.26 (1.06 to 1.49)*1.29 (1.11 to 1.50)*
 Separated or divorced1.19 (0.92 to 1.54)1.12 (0.79 to 1.59)1.26 (0.91 to 1.74)
 Other0.82 (0.35 to 1.88)0.70 (0.22 to 2.24)1.46 (0.73 to 2.92)
Paternal education level
 Low1.001.0001.00
 High0.76 (0.59 to 0.97)*0.58 (0.42 to 0.80)*0.48 (0.30 to 0.75)*
Maternal education level
 Low1.001.00
 High0.71 (0.52 to 0.97)*0.49 (0.27 to 0.89)*
Pocket money (¥)
 0–2001.001.001.001.00
 200–4001.24 (1.05 to 1.46)*1.24 (0.99 to 1.56)1.24 (1.01 to 1.53)1.32 (1.03 to 1.69)*
 >4001.71 (1.42 to 2.06)*1.61 (1.24 to 2.09)*1.66 (1.32 to 2.09)*1.95 (1.49 to 2.55)*
Parental drinking
 Father1.53 (1.35 to 1.73)*1.39 (1.16 to 1.65)*1.57 (1.34 to 1.83)*1.54 (1.28 to 1.87)*
 Mother1.34 (0.85 to 2.12)1.51 (0.83 to 2.73)1.56 (0.89 to 2.70)1.26 (0.61 to 2.58)
 Both2.08 (1.58 to 2.74)*2.30 (1.62 to 3.27)*2.30 (1.66 to 3.18)*2.38 (1.61 to 3.51)*
 Neither1.001.001.001.00
Parental NMUPD
 Yes2.86 (2.29 to 3.56)*2.97 (2.23 to 3.96)*2.69 (2.05 to 3.52)*3.17 (2.33 to 4.32)*
 No1.001.001.001.00
  • Models are adjusted for sex, age, nationality and school clusters.

  • *P<0.05.

  • NMUPD, non-medical use of prescription drugs.