Table 3

Adjusted ORs and 95% CIs of lifetime NMUPD among boys and girls

VariablesBoysGirls
AnySedativeOpioidStimulantAnySedativeOpioidStimulant
AOR (95% CI)AOR (95% CI)AOR (95% CI)AOR (95% CI)AOR (95% CI)AOR (95% CI)AOR (95% CI)AOR (95% CI)
Living arrangement
 With parents1.001.001.001.001.001.001.001.00
 With single parent1.47 (1.15 to 1.87)*1.32 (0.92 to 1.90)*1.26 (0.93 to 1.70)1.75 (1.23 to 2.49)*1.65 (1.24 to 2.19)*1.72 (1.18 to 2.50)*1.45 (0.99 to 2.14)1.86 (1.26 to 2.75)*
 With other relatives1.55 (1.27 to 1.89)*1.68 (1.27 to 2.23)*1.58 (1.25 to 2.00)*2.48 (1.90 to 3.24)*1.30 (1.03 to 1.65)*1.37 (1.00 to 1.88)1.38 (1.02 to 1.86)*1.57 (1.09 to 2.24)*
Economic status
 Above average1.001.001.001.001.001.001.00
 Average0.95 (0.79 to 1.15)0.88 (0.67 to 1.15)1.00 (0.80 to 1.26)0.87 (0.66 to 1.14)0.89 (0.73 to 1.10)0.82 (0.63 to 1.08)0.88 (0.63 to 1.22)
 Below average1.38 (1.07 to 1.77)*1.58 (1.12 to 2.23)*1.42 (1.05 to 1.93)*1.59 (1.12 to 2.26)*1.34 (1.01 to 1.80)*1.47 (1.01 to 2.15)*1.67 (1.07 to 2.60)*
Parental marriage status
 Harmonious1.001.001.00
 Conflicting1.60 (1.34 to 1.90)*1.61 (1.28 to 2.04)*1.58 (1.26 to 1.98)*
 Separated or divorced1.14 (0.78 to 1.67)1.08 (0.65 to 1.78)1.43 (0.89 to 2.30)
 Other0.86 (0.26 to 2.80)1.03 (0.24 to 4.33)0
Paternal education level
 Low1.001.001.001.00
 High0.51 (0.35 to 0.72)*0.49 (0.30 to 0.79)*0.58 (0.37 to 0.91)*0.14 (0.05 to 0.38)*
Maternal education level
 Low1.001.00
 High0.54 (0.37 to 0.77)*0.56 (0.33 to 0.96)*
Pocket money (¥)
 0–2001.001.001.001.001.001.001.00
 200–4001.18 (0.94 to 1.48)1.15 (0.83 to 1.59)1.29 (0.98 to 1.68)1.24 (0.90 to 1.71)1.34 (1.05 to 1.69)*1.38 (1.01 to 1.90)*1.44 (0.98 to 2.10)
 >4001.73 (1.35 to 2.22)*1.48 (1.03 to 2.14)*1.76 (1.31 to 2.37)*1.50 (1.04 to 2.16)*1.70 (1.28 to 2.25)*1.80 (1.25 to 2.60)*2.61 (1.77 to 3.86)*
Parental drinking
 Father1.54 (1.30 to 1.83)*1.34 (1.04 to 1.72)*1.58 (1.29 to 1.93)*1.33 (1.03 to 1.72)*1.51 (1.25 to 1.81)*1.44 (1.12 to 1.84)*1.58 (1.24 to 2.00)*1.81 (1.36 to 2.42)*
 Mother0.78 (0.34 to 1.81)0.85 (0.27 to 2.74)1.13 (0.45 to 2.82)0.28 (0.04 to 2.04)1.82 (1.05 to 3.16)*1.97 (0.98 to 3.96)1.93 (0.97 to 3.88)2.48 (1.13 to 5.45)*
 Both2.46 (1.70 to 3.56)*2.66 (1.63 to 4.33)*2.74 (1.80 to 4.18)*2.51 (1.52 to 4.13)*1.79 (1.19 to 2.69)*2.06 (1.25 to 3.41)*1.98 (1.18 to 3.31)*2.08 (1.10 to 3.92)*
 Neither1.001.001.001.001.001.001.001.00
Parental NMUPD
 Yes3.50 (2.61 to 4.68)*4.10 (2.83 to 5.95)*2.87 (2.01 to 4.10)*4.15 (2.83 to 6.08)*2.29 (1.63 to 3.21)*2.00 (1.26 to 3.17)*2.46 (1.62 to 3.74)*2.15 (1.25 to 3.70)*
 No1.001.001.001.001.001.001.001.00
  • Models are adjusted for age, nationality and school clusters.

  • *P<0.05.

  • NMUPD, non-medical use of prescription drugs.