Table 1

Baseline distribution of covariates and association with anti-HCV prevalence across available demographic factors

Total (%)# Positive (%)Crude OR (95% CI)P value*Adjusted OR† (95% CI)P value‡
Overall124 22311 003 (8.86)
Age (years)
 <2510 385 (8.52)228 (2.2)1<0.00011<0.0001
 25–3413 139 (10.78)301 (2.29)1.04 (0.88 to 1.24)1.15 (0.95 to 1.4)
 35–4411 341 (9.3)379 (3.34)1.54 (1.3 to 1.82)1.76 (1.47 to 2.12)
 45–5438 014 (31.18)1794 (4.72)2.21 (1.92 to 2.54)2.56 (2.19 to 3)
 >5549 040 (40.22)8074 (16.46)8.78 (7.68 to 10.03)9.93 (8.58 to 11.57)
Sex
 Female80 157 (64.59)7449 (9.29)1<0.000110.0251
 Male43 936 (35.41)3538 (8.05)0.85 (0.82 to 0.89)0.95 (0.91 to 0.99)
Province
 East30 836 (24.83)2488 (8.07)1<0.00011<0.0001
 Kigali City13 282 (10.69)1258 (9.47)1.19 (1.11 to 1.28)1.06 (0.99 to 1.15)
 North17 010 (13.69)1549 (9.11)1.14 (1.07 to 1.22)0.86 (0.8 to 0.92)
 South31 640 (25.47)3288 (10.39)1.32 (1.25 to 1.4)1.11 (1.05 to 1.18)
 West31 439 (25.31)2416 (7.68)0.95 (0.89 to 1.01)1.19 (1.11 to 1.26)
Socioeconomic level (SES)§
 116 367 (14.23)2103 (12.85)1<0.00011<0.0001
 240 877 (35.53)3910 (9.57)0.72 (0.68 to 0.76)0.84 (0.79 to 0.89)
 357 418 (49.9)4282 (7.46)0.55 (0.52 to 0.58)0.76 (0.72 to 0.8)
 4395 (0.34)17 (4.3)0.31 (0.19 to 0.5)0.44 (0.26 to 0.71)
Health insurance
 Mutuelle112 339 (90.71)10 398 (9.26)1<0.0001NANA
 None97 (0.08)4 (4.12)0.42 (0.15 to 1.15)
 Not mentioned2901 (2.34)210 (7.24)0.77 (0.66 to 0.88)
 Private694 (0.56)31 (4.47)0.46 (0.32 to 0.66)
 RAMA and MMI7807 (6.3)328 (4.2)0.43 (0.38 to 0.48)
HBsAg results
 Negative118 737 (96.08)10 719 (9.03)1<0.00011<0.0001
 Positive4843 (3.92)243 (5.02)0.53 (0.47 to 0.61)0.6 (0.52 to 0.69)
  • *Chi-squared P value.

  • †Adjusted for age, sex, province, SES and HBsAg result.

  • ‡ P value from likelihood ratio test comparing models with and without variable.

  • §9166 (7.38%) missing SES, all other variables less than 2% missing data.

  • HBsAg, hepatitis B virus surface antigen; HCV,  hepatitis C  virus; MMI, Military Medical Insurence; RAMA, La Rwandaise d’Assurence Maladie.