Table 1

Review eligibility criteria checklist

Study designCohort studies (retrospective and prospective)
Case–control and nested case–control studies
Cross-sectional studies
Study characteristicsFull articles
Reference lists of any recent review article
Eligible manuscript identified by the database search
ParticipantsAdult aged ≥18 years
High user of healthcare
Accrue high healthcare costs
Presence of  Medically unexplained symptoms (MUS)
ComparatorNon-high cost and non-high users of healthcare
OutcomePrevalence of MUS
Patient characteristics and context associated with high service usage/costs among patients with MUS
Magnitude of cost or use of healthcare associated with the presence of MUS