Table 1

Mapping of study design and population characteristics

AuthorStudy designPopulation typeSample size (Gender)Age M (SD)
Abanobi et al,43 2015Epidemiological: case controlledWelders in Owerri, Nigeria100 (male=100)35 (9)
Cary et al,42 2016Epidemiological: cross-sectionalPopulation of convenience in Esperance, Western Australia15 (male=7)44 (17)
Desouzart et al,17 2016Controlled pilotElderly participants in physical activity programme at Polytechnic Institute of Leiria, Portugal20 (male=0)62 (4)
Gordon et al,13 2007Epidemiological: cross-sectionalEvery third household in Port Lincoln in South Australia812 (male=261)Female 61 (10)
Male 59 (11)
  • M = mean, SD = standard deviation