Table 1

Clinical and demographic characteristics of surveyed patients who received antimicrobial drugs and those who did not receive antimicrobial drugs*

CharacteristicsTotal
n=820
Received antimicrobial drugs
n=275
Did not receive antimicrobial drugs
n=545
P value†
Age, year, median (IQR)70 (55–80)69 (54–80)71 (56–80)0.51
Women380 (46.3)126 (45.8)254 (46.6)1.00
Residence before the index admission‡
  Home747 (91.1)261 (94.9)486 (89.2)0.01
  Nursing care facility27 (3.3)7 (2.5)20 (3.7)0.54
  Other hospitals23 (2.8)6 (2.2)17 (3.1)0.51
Medical history
  Ischaemic heart disease57 (7.0)19 (6.9)38 (7.0)1.00
  Stroke89 (10.9)25 (9.1)64 (11.7)0.29
  Dementia39 (4.8)11 (4.0)28 (5.1)0.60
  Liver cirrhosis19 (2.3)6 (2.2)13 (2.4)1.00
  Diabetes mellitus150 (18.3)53 (19.3)97 (17.8)0.63
  Dialysis26 (3.2)13 (4.7)13 (2.4)0.09
Immunosuppressive drug use107 (13.1)41 (14.9)66 (12.1)0.27
Location in hospitals
  Ward777 (94.8)255 (92.7)522 (95.8)0.07
  Critical care unit43 (5.2)20 (7.3)23 (4.2)0.07
Central line in place on survey date54 (6.6)24 (8.7)30 (5.5)0.10
Peripheral line in place on survey date284 (34.6)149 (54.2)135 (24.8)<0.001
Urinary catheter in place on survey date121 (14.8)61 (22.2)60 (11.0)<0.001
Intubated or tracheal tube in place on survey date25 (3.1)17 (6.2)8 (1.5)<0.001
Drainage tube in place on survey date49 (6.0)27 (9.8)22 (4.0)0.002
Median days to survey date from admission (IQR)9 (3–23)6 (2–19)10 (3–26)<0.001
  • *Values are the numbers of patients; the numbers in parentheses are percentages of the total number of patients unless stated otherwise.

  • †The Mann-Whitney U test or Fisher’s exact test were used for comparison between patients who were and were not prescribed any antimicrobial drugs. The threshold for statistical significance was set at p<0.05.

  • ‡Twenty-three patients who were born at the surveyed hospitals were excluded.