Table 2

Demographic and health variables of participants with good QoL at baseline (n=2006) and poor QoL status 2 years later, n (%)

VariablesParticipant remain good QoL, n=1241Incident poor QoL, n=765P value
Age, m±SD55.67±4.2855.68±4.230.98
Gender male694 (55.92)396 (51.76)0.07
Education*†0.13
 Elementary304 (24.50)201 (26.27)
 Medium381 (30.70)256 (33.46)
 High school+549 (44.24)301 (39.35)
 Living alone219 (17.65)128 (16.73)0.60
 Good or better than good perceived health1140 (91.86)653 (85.36) < 0.001
 One or more chronic diseases652 (52.54)455 (59.48) < 0.001
BMI*‡0.97
 Underweight6 (0.48)6 (0.78)
 Normal537 (43.27)339 (44.31)
 Overweight527 (42.47)315 (41.18)
 Obese164 (13.22)100 (13.07)
 One or more mobility limitations254 (20.47)197 (25.75)0.02
 Current smokers290 (23.37)207 (27.06)0.06
 Alcohol drinkers*162 (13.05)87 (11.37)0.39
 Physical activity1224 (98.63)744 (97.25)0.02
 Depression99 (7.98)95 (12.42) < 0.001
 Low income*327 (26.35)227 (29.67)0.07
 Low reward613 (49.40)446 (58.30) <0.001
 Low control642 (51.73)456 (59.61) <0.001
Reward and control <0.001
 HR+HC69 (29.73)164 (21.44)
 HR+LC259 (20.87)155 (20.26)
 LR+HC230 (18.53)145 (18.95)
 LR+LC383 (30.86)301 (39.35)
  • *25 participants with missing information in education, 1 in chronic disease, 12 in BMI, 1 in mobility limitation, 5 in alcohol consumption, 7 in depression and 220 in income.

  • †Education: elementary (pre primary, primary and lower secondary school), medium (upper-secondary school) and high (post secondary and tertiary school).

  • ‡Underweight: Below 18.5, normal: 18.5–24.9 overweight: 25–29.9, obese: 30 or higher.

  • BMI, body mass index; HC, high control;  HR, high reward; LC, low control; LR, low reward; QoL, quality of life.