Table 4

Risk factors for MRB carriage for each bacterium

Investigated risk factorsAnalysed CPE (n=4) MRSA (n=16) VRE (n=21) ESBL (n=230)
PositiveUnivariate analysisPositiveUnivariate analysisPositiveUnivariate analysisPositiveUnivariate analysisMultivariate analysis
n%n%OR (95% CI)P valuen%OR (95% CI)P valuen%OR (95% CI)P valuen%OR (95% CI)P valueOR (95% CI)P value
Country of living
 Foreign country90.2%00.0%-00.0%-00.0%-222.2%6.1 (1.3 to 29.6) 0.024 4.9 (1.0 to 23.6) 0.049
 Nordic country*510799.8%40.1%-160.3%-210.4%-2284.5%0.2 (0.03 to 0.8) 0.025
Situation at current admission
 Admitted due to suspected infection147028.7%10.1%0.8 (0.1 to 7.9)0.970.5%1.9 (0.7 to 5.2)0.2100.7%2.3 (0.96 to 5.3)0.1694.7%1.1 (0.8 to 1.4)0.7
 Antibiotic treatment within past month134526.3%20.1%2.8 (0.4 to 20.0)0.340.3%0.93 (0.3 to 2.9)0.9181.3%17.0 (5.1 to 58.0) 0.000 765.7%1.4 (1.1 to 1.9) 0.018 1.3 (0.9 to 1.7)0.1
 Antibiotic treatment at current admission64412.6%10.2%2.3 (0.2 to 22.3)0.540.6%2.3 (0.7 to 7.2)0.260.9%2.8 (1.1 to 7.2) 0.034 416.4%1.5 (1.1 to 2.2) 0.015 1.3 (0.9 to 1.9)0.2
 Wound on the body or recurrent abscesses77115.1%00.0%-30.4%1.3 (0.4 to 4.6)0.730.4%0.9 (0.3 to 3.2)0.9435.6%1.3 (0.9 to 1.8)0.1
 Chronic skin disorders4879.5%00.0%-10.2%0.6 (0.8 to 4.8)0.710.2%0.5 (0.1 to 3.5)0.5234.7%1.1 (0.7 to 1.6)0.8
 Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease63812.5%10.2%2.3 (0.2 to 22.6)0.530.5%1.6 (0.5 to 5.7)0.560.9%2.8 (1.1 to 7.3) 0.032 294.5%1.0 (0.7 to 1.5)1.0
 Chronic respiratory infections3757.3%00.0%-41.1%4.2 (1.4 to 13.2) 0.013 10.3%0.6 (0.1 to 4.7)0.7277.2%1.7 (1.1 to 2.6) 0.010 1.8 (1.1 to 2.7) 0.009
 Urinary catheter1683.3%10.6%9.9 (1.02 to 95.4) 0.048 10.6%2.0 (0.3 to 15.0)0.521.2%3.1 (0.7 to 13.5)0.1137.7%1.8 (1.0 to 3.3) 0.042 1.8 (1.0 to 3.2)0.1
 Drainage tubes, nutrition tube, IV catheters173733.9%10.1%0.6 (0.1 to 6.2)0.780.5%1.9 (0.7 to 5.2)0.2100.6%1.7 (0.8 to 4.2)0.2754.3%0.9 (0.7 to 1.2)0.7
Health history past 6 months
 Treatment at a hospital in Nordic countries*168332.9%40.2%-40.2%0.7 (0.2 to 2.1)0.5150.9%5.1 (2.0 to 13.3) 0.001 855.1%1.2 (0.9 to 1.6)0.2
 Treated with antibiotics during stay in foreign countries631.2%11.6%27.2 (2.8 to 264.7) 0.005 11.6%5.4 (0.7 to 41.7)0.123.2%8.7 (2.0 to 38.1) 0.004 1219.0%5.2 (2.7 to 9.9) 0.000 2.5 (1.2 to 5.3) 0.016
 Treatment at a hospital/clinic during stay in foreign counties470.9%12.1%36.7 (3.7 to 359.6) 0.002 12.1%7.3 (0.95 to 56.6)0.100.0%-919.1%5.2 (2.5 to 10.9) 0.000 2.1 (0.9 to 5.0)0.1
Previously carrier of resistant bacteria
 Patient691.3%00.0%-34.3%17.6 (4.9 to 63.2) 0.000 00.0%-45.8%1.3 (0.5 to 3.6)0.6
 In household190.4%00.0%-15.3%18.8 (2.4 to 150.2) 0.006 00.0%-15.3%1.2 (0.2 to 8.9)0.9
Performed past 6 months
 Shared sports equipment420.8%00.0%-00.0%-00.0%-614.3%3.6 (1.5 to 8.7) 0.004 1.2 (0.5 to 3.4)0.7
 Drug abuse with syringe130.3%00.0%-00.0%-00.0%-215.4%3.9 (0.9 to 17.6)0.1
 Tattoos/piercings891.7%00.0%-00.0%-00.0%-89.0%2.1 (1.0 to 4.5) 0.04 2.1 (1.0 to 4.5)0.1
Housing and work situation in risk zones† past 6 months
 Nordic countries*79515.5%10.1%1.8 (1.9 to 17.5)0.610.1%0.4 (0.05 to 2.7)0.330.4%0.9 (0.3 to 3.1)0.9364.5%1.0 (0.7 to 1.5)1.0
 Foreign countries701.4%11.4%24.4 (2.5 to 237.2) 0.006 00.0%-00.0%-45.7%1.3 (0.5 to 3.6)0.6
Frequently contact with pig, cattle, poultry or mink farms 3947.7%00.0%-20.5%1.7 (0.4 to 7.6)0.500.0%-143.6%0.8 (0.4 to 1.3)0.3
Travel activity last year
 Europe156330.5%00.0%-40.3%0.8 (0.2 to 2.4)0.610.1%0.1 (0.02 to 0.8) 0.034 754.8%1.1 (0.8 to 1.5)0.5
 Asia and Oceania2985.8%10.3%5.4 (0.6 to 52.1)0.210.3%1.1 (0.1 to 8.2)0.900.0%-3612.1%3.3 (2.2 to 4.8) 0.000 2.7 (1.8 to 4.0) 0.000
 South and North America1232.4%00.0%-00.0%-10.8%2.0 (0.3 to 15.3)0.5108.1%1.9 (1.0 to 3.7)0.1
 Africa751.5%00.0%-00.0%-00.0%-912.0%3.0 (1.5 to 6.0) 0.003 2.0 (0.9 to 4.7)0.1
  • *Nordic countries encompass Denmark, Sweden, Norway, Finland, Iceland, Greenland, Svalbard and the Faroe and Åland Islands.

  • †Daily stay in hospital, nursing home, boarding school, dormitory, prison, military, homeland security, asylum centre, refugee camp, homeless shelter, daycare for children aged 0–6 years, disaster or war zones.

  • p-values <0.05 are in bold.

  • CPE, carbapenemase-producing enterobacteria; MRB, multiresistant bacteria; MRSA, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus;  VRE, vancomycin-resistant enterococci.