Table 1

Random-effects pairwise meta-analyses of antidepressants versus placebo.

N trialsN comparisonsES95% CITau2 I2
Overall (SMD)
 Overall2533900.29*0.27 to 0.310.03840.1%
Overall (mean difference on the HAMD17)
 Overall1091661.97**1.74 to 2.211.89627.6%
Publication status
 Published1962940.33*0.30 to 0.350.03740.0%
 Unpublished57960.15*0.11 to 0.190.0200.0%
‘Placebo run-in’
 Yes1422210.31*0.28 to 0.340.04335.0%
 Unclear791200.29*0.25 to 0.330.03247.6%
 No30460.22*0.16 to 0.290.03235.5%
 Sponsored2073410.27*0.25 to 0.300.03335.4%
 Unclear10120.39*0.25 to 0.520.02633.0%
 Not sponsored36370.41*0.31 to 0.520.07555.7%
  • *SMD

  • **Mean difference on 17-item Hamilton depression rating scale.

  • ES, effect size; HAMD17, 17-item Hamilton depression rating scale; I2, inconsistency; Tau2, estimate of overall heterogeneity; SMD, standardised mean difference.