Table 2

Estimated associations† between dementia, frailty (and dementia–frailty interaction) and 1-year health outcomes, among long-stay home care clients aged 50+ years in Ontario

OutcomeAge–sex adj. s/HRAge–sex adj. s/HRFully adj. s/HR‡
Model 1
Fully adj. s/HR‡
Model 2
Urgent hospitalisation
 Dementia0.815* (0.800, 0.832)0.843* (0.827, 0.860)0.891* (0.844, 0.941)
 Frailty (FI continuous)1.209* (1.199, 1.220)1.159* (1.149, 1.169)1.165* (1.153, 1.177)
 Dementia–frailty term0.979* (0.960, 0.999)
 P for interaction 0.036
LTC admission
 Dementia2.749* (2.679, 2.821)2.598* (2.530, 2.668)5.814* (5.413, 6.245)
 Frailty (FI continuous)1.472* (1.454, 1.490)1.490* (1.471, 1.509)1.727* (1.697, 1.757)
 Dementia–frailty term0.748* (0.730, 0.767)
 P for interaction <0.001
Mortality
 Dementia0.901* (0.874, 0.928)0.869* (0.843, 0.895)0.677* (0.619, 0.740)
 Frailty (FI continuous)1.507* (1.488, 1.527)1.478* (1.459, 1.498)1.442* (1.419, 1.465)
 Dementia–frailty term1.090* (1.059, 1.122)
 P for interaction <0.001
  • *P<0.05.

  • †For urgent hospitalisation and LTC admission, estimates are subdistribution HRs and corresponding 95% CIs from Fine-Gray model; for mortality, estimates are HRs and corresponding 95% CIs from Cox proportional hazards regression model.

  • ‡Models adjusted for age, sex, marital status, rurality, income quintile and multimorbidity count; Model 2 additionally includes dementia–frailty interaction term.

  • FI, frailty index; LTC, long-term care.