Table 1

Descriptive data of included study articles

StudyCountry of originStudy designHealthcare provider sample*Patient sample*
Bernhard et al 54 AUS, NZ, CHE, GER, AUTRCTMedical, surgical, radiation and gynaecological oncologists (n=62)n=769
Bieber et al 23 GERRCTSpecialists in internal medicine (n=13)n=111
Bieber et al 22 GERRCTSpecialists in internal medicine (n=10)n=85
Bieber et al 24 GERNCBAPhysicians with direct patient contact (n=123)n/a
Bieber et al 30 GERRCTPhysicians treating patients with cancer (n=27)n=107
Butow et al 55 AUSRCTMedical, surgical, radiation and gynaecological oncologists (n=62)n=158
Cohen et al 50 UKCRCTGeneral practitioners (n=20)n=n/r
Davis et al 51 UKQUALGeneral practitioners (n=21)n=38
Dion et al 41 CANNCBAFamily medicine residents (n=247)n/a
Edwards et al 52 UKRCTGeneral practitioners (n=20)n=n/r
Edwards et al 52 UKCRCTGeneral practitioners (n=21)n=747
Edwards et al 53 UKQUALGeneral practitioners (n=18)n/a
Edwards et al 52 UKCRCTGeneral practitioners (n=20)n=352
Feng et al 42 USARCTPrimary care physicians (n=118)n=n/r
Geiger et al 31 GERRCTPhysicians (n=38)n=152
Härter et al 25 GERCRCTPhysicians treating patients with cancer (n=33)n=160
Jo and An59 KORCBAFemale intensive care unit nurses (n=41)n/a
Kasper et al 32 GERNCBAPhysicians working in outpatient clinics (n=10)n=40
Körner et al 26 GERCRCTHealthcare provider executives of different occupational backgrounds (n=74)n/a
Körner et al 27 GERCRCTHealthcare provider executives of different occupational backgrounds (n=74)n=n/r
LeBlanc et al 33 CANCRCTFamily medicine group physicians (n=39)n=544
Légaré et al 36 CANCRCTFamily medicine group physicians (n=33)n=459
Légaré et al 35 CANCRCTFamily physicians (n=306)n=449
Légaré et al 34 CANCRCTFamily physicians, residents and nurse practitioners (n=250)n=250
Loh et al 28 GERPostGeneral practitioners (n=20)n/a
McCallister et al 43 USANCBAPulmonary and critical care medical fellows (n=16)n/a
Metcalfe et al 56 AUSNCBAGeneral practitioners (n=63)n/a
Murray et al 37 CANRCTOncology or palliative care nursing and allied healthcare providers (n=88)n/a
Price-Haywood et al 44 USACRCTPrimary care physicians (n=18)n=161
Sanders et al 57 NLCRCTGeneral practitioners (n=42)n=175
Sanders et al 58 NLCRCTGeneral practitioners (n=47)n=226
Simmons et al 60 USANCBAInternal medicine residents (n=98)n/a
Stacey et al 38 CANRCTCall centre nurses (n=39)n/a
Stacey et al 39 CANNCBAOncology medical residents (n=11)n/a
Sullivan et al 46 USARCTInternal medical residents, attendings (n=45)n/a
Sullivan et al 45 USARCTInternal medical residents (n=213)n/a
Tinsel et al 29 GERCRCTGeneral practitioners (n=36)n=1120
Towle et al 40 CANQUALFamily physicians (n=6)n=198
Volk et al 47 USAPostClinicians from diverse specialties (n=49)n/a
Wilkes et al 48 USACRCTPrimary care physicians (n=120)n=712
Yuen et al 49 USAPostInternal medicine residents (n=29)n/a
  • *Participants who provided data for analysis.

  • †Articles report data from one study.

  • AUS, Australia; AUT, Austria; CAN, Canada; CBA, controlled before-after study; CHE, Switzerland; CRCT, cluster-randomised controlled trial; GER, Germany, KOR, Korea; n/a, not applicable; NCBA, non-controlled before-after study; NZ, New Zealand; NL, The Netherlands; n/r, not reported; QUAL, qualitative study; Post, post-test only study; RCT, randomised controlled trial.