Table 1

Characteristics of included studies with emphasis on the intervention

StudyCognitive levelType of interventionDose (total hours)Setting
Pitkälä et al 45 AD (67% moderate/severe)Intense, long-lasting physical exercise by dementia specialist physiotherapists in either home (HE) or group (GE) vs control (CG).HE=1 hour, 2 p/w, 12 mth (104); GE=4 hours, 2 p/w, 12 mth (416).Community, Finland
Shimada et al 47 Amnesic MCIMulticomponent group exercise by physiotherapists.90 min, 2 p/w, (n=40 sessions) 10 mth (130).Community, Japan
Hernandez et al 41 AD (mild/moderate)Supervised group programme of regular physical activity1 hour, 3 p/w, 6 mth (78).Community, Brazil
Hauer et al 40 Dementia (mild/moderate) (MMSE 21.7)Progressive resistance and functional group training programme supervised by a qualified instructor.2 hours, 2 p/w, 3 mth (52).Community, Germany
de Andrade et al 31 AD (mild/moderate)Aerobic, strength, flexibility, balance and cognitive exercises.1 hour, 3 p/w, 16 wk (48).Community, Brazil
Garuffi et al 38 ADResistance training.1 hour, 3 p/w, 16 wk (48).Community, Brazil
Hüger et al 42 Dementia (mild/moderate, MMSE 17–26).Progressive resistance and functional training including attention-depending motor-cognitive demands in small groups.2 hours, 2 p/w, 12 wk (48).Community, Germany
Frederiksen et al 37 AD (mild/moderate).Aerobic exercises (exercise machines) by physiotherapist.1 hour, 3 p/w, 14 wk (42).Community, Denmark
Ries et al 46 AD (mean MMSE 23.2)Balance exercise group with 2:1 supervision.45 min, 2 p/w, 8 wk (12).Community, USA
Suttanon et al 28 AD (mild/moderate)Tailored home-based balance exercise by physiotherapist.6 visits, 6 mth (6).Community, Australia
Cedervall et al 34 AD (mild)Physical activity.Range = ‘never’ to 1 hour per day.Community, Sweden
Cedervall and Aberg33 AD (mild)Outdoor walking.‘Routine’.Community, Sweden.
Malthouse and Fox44 AD (MMSE 18–21)Physical activity.‘Routine’.Community, UK
Hauer  et al 39 Dementia (moderate/severe)Physical training.Range=30–150 min, 2–7 p/w, 2–30 wk (2–525).Mixed.
Burton et al 4 Dementia (MMSE 18.9)Exercise or physical activity programme.Range=1–5 p/w, 3–12 mth (13–260).Mixed
Blankevoort et al 32 DementiaPhysical activity.Various.Mixed
Chan et al 35 Cognitive impairmentPhysical exercise.Various.Mixed
Stubbs et al 48 DementiaPhysical activity.Various.Community, mixed
Liu-Ambrose and Donaldson43 n/aAerobic and resistance training.2 p/wn/a
van Alphen et al 15 ADPhysical activity.n/aCommunity, mixed
Christofoletti36 Dementia (mixed)Motor intervention.Various.Mixed
  • AD, Alzheimer’s disease; MCI, mild cognitive impairment; MMSE, Mini-Mental State Examination; mth, month; p/w, per week; wk, week.