Table 2

Mean for anthropometric and body composition measures in adulthood and according to maternal smoking during pregnancy and partner smoking

Mean (SD)
Body mass index
(kg/m2)
Fat mass index (kg/m2)Android to gynoid fat ratioWaist circumference
(cm)
Waist to height ratioLean mass index (kg/m2)Height
(cm)
Maternal smoking in pregnancy†p<0.0001 ****p=0.0090**p<0.0001****p=0.0001****p=0.0001****p=0.0001****p=0.0001****
  No25.8 (5.4)8.2 (4.3)0.46 (0.13)82.0 (12.3)0.49 (0.07)16.3 (2.6)168.1 (9.4)
  Yes26.4 (5.6)8.5 (4.6)0.47 (0.14)83.2 (12.5)0.50 (0.07)16.6 (2.6)166.6 (9.3)
Duration of maternal smoking‡p<0.0001****p=0.0036**p<0.0001****p<0.0001****p<0.0001****p<0.0001****p<0.0001****
  Non-smokers25.8 (5.4)8.2 (4.3)0.46 (0.13)82.0 (12.3)0.49 (0.07)16.3 (2.6)168.1 (9.4)
  Smoked in part of pregnancy27.0 (5.6)9.0 (4.6)0.48 (0.13)84.7 (12.5)0.50 (0.07)16.7 (2.6)167.8 (9.6)
  Smoked in whole pregnancy26.3 (5.6)8.4 (4.6)0.47 (0.14)82.9 (12.4)0.50 (0.07)16.6 (2.6)166.3 (9.2)
Cigarettes smoked per day‡p=0.0001 ****p=0.0165‡p<0.0001****p=0.0007 †p<0.0001****p<0.0001****p<0.0001****
  None25.8 (5.4)8.2 (4.3)0.46 (0.13)82.0 (12.3)0.49 (0.07)16.3 (2.6)168.1 (9.4)
  1–14 cigarettes/day26.5 (5.6)8.6 (4.6)0.47 (0.14)83.2 (12.5)0.50 (0.07)16.6 (2.6)166.7 9.3)
 ≥15 cigarettes/day26.3 (5.4)8.3 (4.5)0.48 (0.14)83.2 (12.5)0.50 (0.07)16.7 (2.5)165.9 (9.4)
1982 cohort
Partner smoking at 4 years *p=0.4287p=0.9976p=0.3031p=0.3249p=0.5670p=0.3963p=0.1918
No26.8 (5.5)8.4 (4.4)0.50 (0.14)84.9 (12.6)0.51 (0.07)16.7 (2.6)167.9 (9.1)
Yes26.7 (5.4)8.4 (4.3)0.49 (0.14)84.4 (12.4)0.50 (0.07)16.6 (2.7)167.4 (9.3)
1993 cohort
Partner smoking in pregnancy†p=0.0794p=0.8248p=0.0816p=0.0242‡p=0.0004**p=0.0049**p=0.0099**
No25.1 (5.1)7.9 (4.3)0.42 (0.11)79.5 (11.3)0.47 (0.06)16.0 (2.5)167.8 (9.4)
Yes25.4 (5.6)7.9 (4.7)0.42 (0.12)80.5 (12.1)0.48 (0.07)16.3 (2.6)167.0 (9.6)
  • *p<0.05; **p<0.01; ****p<0.0001.

  • *†Student’s t-test

  • ‡Analysis of variance.