Table 4

Patients who ‘always’ or ‘often’ practiced hand hygiene in the different departments

MomentsMedical
wards n/N (%)
Surgical
wards n/N (%)
Obstetrics/gynaecology wards n/N (%)Paediatric wards n/N (%)Infectious diseases wards n/N (%)ICU n/N (%)Total n/N (%)
1. After using the toilet, bedpan or commode99/110 (90.0)136/144 (94.4)19/23 (82.6)7/9 (77.8)10/15 (66.7)3/9 (33.3)274/310 (88.4)
2. When returning to the room after a test or procedure71/110 (64.5)75/144 (52.1)12/23 (52.2)7/9 (77.8)7/15 (46.7)2/9 (22.2)174/310 (56.1)
3. Before eating91/110 (82.7)108/144 (75.0)15/23 (65.2)7/9 (77.8)9/15 (60.0)2/9 (22.2)232/310 (74.8)
4. Before drinking fluids35/110 (31.8)38/144 (26.4)4/23 (17.4)4/9 (44.4)5/15 (33.3)1/9 (11.1)87/310 (28.1)
5. Before taking medicine45/110 (40.9)59/144 (41.0)12/23 (52.2)6/9 (66.7)4/15 (26.7)2/9 (22.2)128/310 (41.3)
6. When visibly dirty106/110 (96.4)138/144 (95.8)22/23 (95.7)7/9 (77.8)12/15 (80.0)5/9 (55.6)290/310 (93.5)
7. Before touching any breaks in the skin (eg, wounds, dressing, tubes)79/110 (71.8)98/144 (68.1)15/23 (65.2)5/9 (55.6)9/15 (60.0)2/9 (22.2)75/310 (24.2)
8. Before any care procedures (eg, dialysis, intravenous drug administration, injections)41/110 (37.3)51/144 (35.4)8/23 (34.8)4/9 (44.4)5/15 (33.3)2/9 (22.2)111/310 (35.8)
9. Before dialysis, contact with intravenous lines or other tubes37/110 (33.6)49/144 (34.0)9/23 (39.1)4/9 (44.4)4/15 (26.7)2/9 (22.2)105/310 (33.9)
10. After coughing, sneezing or touching the nose or mouth51/110 (46.4)73/144 (50.7)10/23 (43.5)4/9 (44.4)7/15 (46.7)2/9 (22.2)147/310 (47.4)
11. Before interacting with visitors23/110 (20.9)34/144 (23.6)8/23 (34.8)3/9 (33.3)6/15 (40.0)1/9 (11.1)75/310 (24.2)
12. After visitors leave25/110 (22.7)32/144 (22.2)5/23 (21.7)4/9 (44.4)6/15 (40.0)2/9 (22.2)74/310 (23.9)
13. When there is concern about whether hands are clean66/110 (60.0)72/144 (50.0)13/23 (56.5)6/9 (66.7)9/15 (60.0)4/9 (44.4)170/310 (54.8)
Kruskal-Wallis H574.47556.01548.99669.5535.47196.5619.838
P value0.001
  • ICU, intensive care unit.