Table 3

Patient hand hygiene moments

MomentsSeldom n (%)Sometimes n (%)Often n (%)Always n (%)Not applicable*
1. After using the toilet, bedpan or commode21 (6.8)15 (4.8)39 (12.6)235 (75.8)0 (0.0)
2. When returning to the room after a test or procedure91 (29.4)43 (13.8)54 (17.4)120 (38.7)0 (0.0)
3. Before eating41 (13.2)37 (11.9)68 (21.9)164 (52.9)0 (0.0)
4. Before drinking fluids160 (51.6)63 (20.3)53 (17.1)34 (11.0)0 (0.0)
5. Before taking medicine130 (41.9)49 (15.8)62 (20.0)66 (21.3)3 (0.9)
6. When visibly dirty11 (3.5)9 (2.9)23 (7.4)267 (86.1)0 (0.0)
7. Before touching any breaks in the skin
(eg, wounds, dressing, tubes)
56 (18.1)36 (11.6)61 (19.7)147 (47.4)10 (3.1)
8. Before any care procedures
(eg, dialysis, intravenous drug administration, injections)
145 (46.8)54 (17.4)52 (16.8)59 (19.0)0 (0.0)
9. Before dialysis, contact with intravenous lines or other tubes139 (44.8)60 (19.4)44 (14.2)61 (19.7)6 (1.9)
10. After coughing, sneezing or touching nose or mouth102 (32.9)61 (19.7)61 (19.7)86 (27.7)0 (0.0)
11. Before interacting with visitors198 (63.8)37 (11.9)38 (12.3)37 (11.9)0 (0.0)
12. After visitors leave190 (61.3)46 (14.8)33 (10.6)41 (13.2)0 (0.0)
13. When there is concern about whether hands are clean78 (25.1)57 (18.4)83 (26.8)87 (28.1)5 (1.5%)
  • *‘Not applicable’ represents patients who reported that they did not perform the procedure and therefore did not encounter that moment.