Table 1

Descriptive statistics and standardised differences for non-binary baseline variables, before matching and after matching and entropy balancing, for controls and integrated care patients (figures after matching, but before entropy balancing, are available in online supplementary tables 3 and 4)

VariableBefore matchingAfter matching and balancingStandard diff.
Potential controls
(n=97 040)
Integrated care patients (n=2459)Controls
(n=2867)
Integrated care patients (n=1720)Before matchAfter match and balance
MeanSDMeanSDMeanSDMeanSD(%)(%)
Age (years)71.1210.9676.7911.3376.6611.1776.6611.1750.000.02
Age squared5178153860251670600116466001164650.690.01
QAdmissions risk score21.9513.5242.2219.9334.5614.0834.5614.08101.680.01
IMD score38.7210.4041.979.1941.529.2241.529.2235.420.01
0–1 months prior to intervention/index date
 A&E attendances0.060.280.110.390.050.240.050.2412.510.04
 Outpatient attendances0.290.800.491.120.410.820.410.8217.430.01
 Emergency inpatient admissions0.030.180.060.280.010.110.010.1112.020.00
 Elective inpatient admissions0.040.280.060.300.040.230.040.235.690.18
 Inpatient bed days0.322.470.743.640.322.600.332.6311.460.05
 GP contacts0.981.321.431.651.311.511.311.5027.310.04
1–6 months prior to intervention/index date
 A&E attendances0.300.780.561.150.320.670.320.6721.770.01
 Outpatient attendances1.492.772.354.371.953.141.953.0919.650.08
 Emergency inpatient admissions0.150.500.320.770.140.390.140.3922.900.00
 Elective inpatient admissions0.210.930.311.250.220.600.220.598.190.04
 Inpatient bed days1.428.513.4112.271.607.691.648.6116.260.44
 GP contacts5.024.367.035.486.314.976.294.7536.660.37
6–12 months prior to intervention/index date
 A&E attendances0.330.800.641.150.370.720.370.7227.050.02
 Outpatient attendances1.693.062.613.942.253.802.243.5823.340.32
 Emergency inpatient admissions0.220.940.311.370.210.710.210.727.100.01
 Elective inpatient admissions0.150.510.370.810.160.410.160.4127.350.00
 Inpatient bed days1.287.903.4812.781.7210.551.669.1617.180.57
 GP contacts5.694.837.896.257.185.517.185.4735.230.06
12–24 months prior to intervention/ index date
 A&E attendances0.561.210.992.050.571.020.571.0320.870.01
 Outpatient attendances3.145.044.646.374.005.843.985.5123.460.40
 Emergency inpatient admissions0.230.750.551.150.210.520.210.5227.600.01
 Elective inpatient admissions0.411.900.551.780.400.950.401.078.010.27
 Inpatient bed days2.0812.815.6719.382.329.202.5514.3618.541.62
 GP contacts10.038.0013.4610.0612.449.4312.409.0834.090.48
24–36 months prior to intervention/index date
 A&E attendances0.521.210.903.250.490.930.490.9411.790.03
 Outpatient attendances3.145.214.576.514.115.904.136.1521.990.26
 Emergency inpatient admissions0.210.660.461.060.180.450.180.4524.220.01
 Elective inpatient admissions0.401.980.501.720.360.950.371.175.610.33
 Inpatient bed days1.8711.654.0414.781.538.121.5810.6614.750.41
 GP contacts7.787.2110.499.789.839.679.779.1527.730.67
Weight (kg)73.6017.8672.6618.1772.8718.0272.8718.025.180.01
Alcohol screen0.942.520.672.000.711.980.711.9813.060.01
Platelet count265.6278.62259.4285.38260.0183.91260.0283.917.260.01
  • A&E, Accident & emergency; GP, general practitioner; IMD, index of multiple deprivation.