Table 1

Participants’ characteristics at wave 3

CharacteristicsNo of participants% of participants
665100
Loneliness
 Not lonely39359
 Slightly lonely10716
 Lonely16525
Age (years)
 80–8430446
 85–8926740
 90+9414
Sex
 Men20731
 Women45869
Physical impairment
 Low22735
 Moderate29245
 High13020
Number of chronic diseases
 0–240964
 ≥322836
Depression
 No53887
 Yes7813
Physical functioning
 No disability24938
 IADL disability only17627
 IADL and ADL disability23135
Cognition*23 (6)†
  • *Cognition was measured as a continuous variable ranging from 1 to 30 with higher score indicating better cognition.

  • †Mean±SD. Because of the missing data, the sum of column data for certain variables may not equal to 665.

  • ADL, activities of daily living; IADL, instrumental ADL.