Table 2

Characteristics of included studies on EBF

Author/publication yearStudy areaStudy designStudy populationSample size/ParticipatedFactorsEBF
YesNoTotal
A. Gender of newborn versus EBF
Asemahagn 201642 Amhara, Azezo districtCross-sectional studyWomen having children aged from 0 to 6 months346/332Male9538133
Female16732199
Total26270332
Setegn et al 201243 Oromia, Bale Zone, Goba districtCross-sectional studyMothers–infant pairs668/608Male10743150
Female9237129
Total19980279
Sonko and Worku 201544 SNNPR, Halaba special woredaCross-sectional studyMothers
with children <6 months of age
422/420Male14560205
Female15164215
Total296124420
Regassa 201425 SNNPR, Sidama zoneCross-sectional studyWith infants aged between 0 and 6
months old
1100/1094Male10919128
Female8917106
Total19836234
Alemayehu 201426 Tigray, Axum townCross-sectional studyMothers who had children aged 6–12
months
418/418Male97119216
Female77128205
Total174247421
Biks et al 201545 Amhara, Dabat districtNested case–control study*All pregnant women in the second/third trimester1769/1769Male271619890
Female72711481875
Total99817672765
Arage and Gedamu 201646 Amhara, Debre Tabor TownCross-sectional studyMothers of infants <6 months of age470/453Male11940159
Female22767294
Total346107453
Adugna et al 201747 SNNPR, Hawassa cityCross-sectional studyMothers with infants aged 0–6 months541/529Male16988257
Female153119272
Total322207529
Egata et al 201348 Oromia, Kersa districtCross-sectional study*Mothers of children <2 years of age881/860Male323124447
Female294119413
Total617243860
Teka et al 201549 Tigray, Enderta WoredaCross-sectional studyMothers having children aged <24 months541/530Male15860218
Female21498312
Total372158530
Sefene 201350 Amhara, Bahir Dar cityCross-sectional studyMothers who had a child aged <6 months170/159Male364783
Female423476
Total7881159
B. Antenatal care versus EBF
Asemahagn 201642 Amhara, Azezo districtCross-sectional studyWomen having children aged from 0 to 6 months346/332ANC24357300
No ANC191332
Total26270332
Gultie and Sebsibie 201635 Amhara, Debre Berhan townCross-sectional studyMothers having children aged <23 months old548/548ANC263253516
No ANC102131
Total273274547
Hunegnaw et al 201752 Amhara, Gozamin districtCross-sectional studyMothers who had infants aged between 6 and 12 months506/478ANC341109450
No ANC171128
Total358120478
Lenja et al 201653 SNNPR, Offa districtCross-sectional studyMothers of infants <6 months403/396ANC23343276
No ANC4488132
Total277131408
Seid et al 201351 Amhara, Bahir Dar cityCross-sectional studyMothers who
delivered in the last 12 months
819/819ANC405372777
No ANC73542
Total412407819
Setegn et al 201131 Oromia, Goba districtCross-sectional studyMothers with children (<12 months)668/608ANC16665231
No ANC271037
Total19375268
Sonko and Worku 201544 SNNPR, Halaba special woredaCross-sectional studyMothers
with children <6 months of age
422/420ANC25888346
No ANC383674
Total296124420
Tadesse et al 201654 SNNPR, Sorro DistrictCross-sectional
Study
Mothers with infants aged 0–5 months602/579ANC211121332
No ANC59123182
Total270244514
Tariku et al 201755 Amhara, Dabat DistrictCross-sectional study *Mothers with children aged <59 months5227/5227ANC197913533332
No ANC7138761589
Total269222294921
Tewabe 201640 Amhara, Motta town, East Gojjam zoneCross-sectional
study
Mothers with an infant <6 months old423/405ANC185164349
No ANC183856
Total203202405
Tamiru et al 201236 Oromia, Jimma Arjo WoredaCross-sectional studyMothers of index children aged
0–6 months
384/382ANC87103190
No ANC9696192
Total183199382
Tamiru and Tamrat 201537 SNNPR, Arba Minch Zuria WoredaCross-sectional studyMothers of infants aged ≤2 years384/384ANC22892320
No ANC273764
Total255129384
Biks et al 201545 Amhara, Dabat districtNested case–control study*All pregnant women in the second/third trimester1769/1769ANC180277457
No ANC3639491312
Total54312261769
Abera 201256 Harari, Harar townCross-sectional studyMothers of children aged <2 years604/583ANC194163357
No ANC132942
Total207192399
Arage and Gedamu 201646 Amhara, Debre Tabor TownCross-sectional studyMothers of infants <6 months of age470/453ANC38439423
No ANC181230
Total40251453
Adugna et al 201747 SNNPR, Hawassa cityCross-sectional studyMothers with infants aged 0–6 months541/529ANC221111332
No ANC10196197
Total322207529
Egata et al 201348 Oromia, Kersa districtCross-sectional study*Mothers of children <2 years of age881/860ANC233135368
No ANC384108492
Total617243860
Taddele 201457 Amhara, Injibara TownComparative cross-sectional studyEmployed and unemployed mothers of children aged ≤1 year524/473ANC9098188
No ANC62329
Total96121217
Echamo 201258 SNNPR, Arbaminch townCross-sectional studyMothers of infants within the age of 6–12 months768/768ANC332360692
No ANC255176
Total357411768
Teka et al 201549 Tigray, Enderta WoredaCross-sectional studyMothers having children aged <24 months541/530ANC325134459
No ANC472471
Total372158530
Chekol et al 201759 Amhara, Gondar townCross-sectional studyMothers with children aged 7–12 months333/333ANC131117248
No ANC295685
Total160173333
C. Postnatal care versus EBF
Asemahagn 201642 Amhara, Azezo districtCross-sectional studyWomen having children aged from 0 to 6 months346/332PNC13725162
No PNC12545170
Total26270332
Lenja et al 201653 SNNPR, Offa districtCross-sectional studyMothers of infants <6 months403/396PNC18833221
No PNC12154175
Total30987396
Sonko and Worku 201544 SNNPR, Halaba special woredaCross-sectional studyMothers with children <6 months of age422/420PNC9825123
No PNC19799296
Total295124419
Tadesse et al 201654 SNNPR, Sorro DistrictCross-sectional
Study
Mothers with infants aged 0–5 months602/579PNC204127331
No PNC66117183
Total270244514
Tewabe et al 201660 Amhara, Motta town, East Gojjam zoneCross-sectional
Study
Mothers with an infant <6 months old423/405PNC11681197
No PNC87121208
Total203202405
Abera 201256 Harari, Harar townCross-sectional studyMothers of children aged <2 years604/583PNC293160
No PNC178161339
Total207192399
Teka et al 201549 Tigray, Enderta woredaCross-sectional studyMothers having children aged <24 months541/530PNC16786253
No PNC20572277
Total372158530
  • *Used nationally representative EDHS data.

  • ANC, antenatal care; EBF, exclusive breast feeding; EDHS, Ethiopian Demographic Health Survey; PNC, postnatal care; SNNPR, Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples' Region.