Table 5

Summary study characteristics and methodological assessments

NumberAuthors (year)CountryStudy focusEligible participants and country of originQuality assessmentRichnessRelevance
1Abdi (2012)136 UKFGM/C and identity for Somali women.16 Somali womenHighThinLow
2Abdullahi et al (2009)137 UKCervical screening.50 Somali womenMediumThinMedium
3Ahlberg et al (2004)23 SwedenFGM/C tradition in destination countries.50 Somali womenHighThinLow
4Ahmed (2005)138 UKCross-cultural psychology and women’s experience of FGM/C.56 women (from Somalia and Eritrea)LowThinLow
5Ameresekere et al (2011)145 USAMaternity care experiences.23 Somali womenMediumThinMedium
6Asefaw (2007)112 Eritrea and GermanyPostmigration attitudes towards FGM/C.31 Eritrean womenMediumThinLow
7Baldeh (2013)89 ScotlandMaternity care experiences.7 women (from Gambia, Ghana and Sudan)HighThickHigh
8Ballesteros et al (2014)114 SpainHealth impacts of FGM/C.9 Senegalese womenMediumThinMedium
9Behrendt (2011)125 GermanyViews on FGM/C.91 women (from Ghana, Nigeria and Togo)MediumThinLow
10Beine et al (1995)146 USAMaternity care experiences.14 Somali womenMediumThinMedium
11Berggren et al (2006)130 SwedenMaternity care experiences.21 women (from Eritrea, Somalia and Sudan)MediumThickHigh
12Betts (2011)118 CanadaIdentity, gender, sexuality and healthcare experiences.13 Somali womenMediumThickHigh
13Bravo Pastor del Mar (2014)115 SpainViews on FGM/C.24 women (from Senegal, Nigeria and Gambia)HighThinLow
14Bulman and McCourt (2002)139 UKMaternity care experiences.12 Somali womenMediumThinMedium
15Carroll et al (2007)147 USAHealthcare experiences.34 Somali womenHighThickMedium
16Chalmers and Omer-Hashi (2002)119 CanadaMaternity care experiences.415 Somali womenMediumThickMedium
17Degni et al (2014)124 FinlandReproductive health and maternity care experiences.70 Somali womenHighThinMedium
18d’Entremont et al (2014)90 FranceChildbirth experiences.4 women (from different countries)HighThickHigh
19Essén et al (2000)131 SwedenMaternity care experiences.15 Somali womenMediumThinLow
20Fawcett (2014)91 USAViews on FGM/C and maternity care.30 Somali womenHighThickHigh
21Gali (1997)148 USAReproductive healthcare experiences.26 women (from Sudan, Eritrea, Ethiopia and Egypt)MediumThinLow
22Ghebre et al (2015)149 USAViews on cervical screening.23 Somali womenHighThickMedium
23Glazer (2012)120 CanadaPain and embodiment associated with FGM/C.14 Somali womenHighThinLow
24Glover et al (2017)92 UKPsychological impact, resilience and experiences of FGM/C.20 women (from Somalia, Kenya, South Africa and Gambia)HighThickHigh
25Guerin et al (2006)116 Australia and New ZealandReproductive healthcare experiences.10 women
(from
Somalia, Ethiopia, Eritrea, Sudan and Nigeria)
LowThinLow
26Hill et al (2012)150 USAMaternity care experiences.18 Somali womenMediumThickLow
27Hussein (2010)140 UKViews on FGM/C and related services.8 women (from Somalia and Sudan)MediumThinLow
28Hussen (2014)128 New ZealandViews on FGM/C and healthcare experiences.20 women (from Eritrea, Ethiopia, Somalia and Sudan)MediumThickMedium
29Johansen (2017)129 NorwayExperiences and perceptions of premarital deinfibulation.23 women (from Somalia and Sudan)HighThickMedium
30Jones (2010)93 UKViews and experiences of FGM/C.6 women (from Sudan and Somalia)HighThickHigh
31Khaja (2004)121 Canada and USAViews and experiences of FGM/C.17 Somali womenHighThinLow
32Khaja et al (2010)122 Canada and USAViews and experiences of FGM/C.17 Somali womenLowThinLow
33Lundberg and Gerezgiher (2008)94 SwedenMaternity care experiences.15 Eritrean womenHighThickHigh
34Maier (2003)113 AustriaViews, experiences and impacts of FGM/C.3 women (from different countries)LowThinLow
35Maternity Action (2014)141 UKMaternity care experiences.23 women (from several countries)LowThinMedium
36McNeely and Christie-de Jong (2016)151 USAViews and experiences of FGM/C.13 Somali womenHighThinLow
37Moxey and Jones (2016)95 UKMaternity care experiences.10 Somali womenHighThickHigh
38Murray et al (2010)117 AustraliaBirth experiences.10 women (from Sudan Liberia, Ethiopia and Somalia)HighThickMedium
39Norman et al (2016)142 UKViews and experiences of FGM/C and community engagement.33 women (from various countries)MediumThinLow
40Norman et al (2009)143 UKViews and experiences of FGM/C, community engagement and services.40 women (from Sudan, Eritrea and Somalia)MediumThinLow
41O’Brien et al (2017)134 ScotlandViews and experiences of FGM/C, community engagement and services.48 women (from Sudan, Nigeria and Zimbabwe)HighThinLow
42O’Brien et al (2016)135 ScotlandViews and experiences of FGM/C, community engagement and services.39 women (from 17 African countries)HighThinLow
43Palfreyman et al (2011)96 UKViews and experiences of FGM/C, community engagement and services.105 women (from Somali, Eritrea, Sudan, Sierra Leone and Gambia)HighThickHigh
44Recchia and McGarry (2017)25 UKViews on FGM/C and healthcare experiences.6 women (from Kenya, Nigeria and Ethiopia)MediumThickLow
45Safari (2013)144 UKWomen’s experience of deinfibulation.9 women (from Somalia and Eritrea)HighThinLow
46Salad et al (2015)126 The NetherlandsCervical screening.46 Somali womenHighThickMedium
47Shaw (1985)152 USAViews on FGM/C and healthcare experiences.12 women (from Sudan, Egypt and Somalia)LowThinLow
48Shermarke (1996)123 CanadaViews on FGM/C.8 Somali womenHighThinMedium
49Straus et al (2009)97 UKMaternity care experiences.8 Somali womenHighThickHigh
50Thierfelder (2003)98 SwitzerlandGynaecological and maternity care experiences.29 women (from Somalia and Eritrea)HighThickHigh
51Thierfelder et al (2005)133 SwitzerlandGynaecological and maternity care experiences.29 women (from Somalia and Eritrea)MediumThinMedium
52Upvall et al (2009)153 USAHealth experiences.23 Somali womenMediumThickHigh
53Vangen et al (2004)99 NorwayMaternity care experiences.23 Somali womenHighThickHigh
54Vaughan et al (2014)100 AustraliaViews and experiences of FGM/C, community engagement and services.87 women (from Eritrea, Ethiopia, Somali and Sudan)HighThickHigh
55Vaughan et al (2014)101 AustraliaViews and experiences of FGM/C, community engagement and services.50 women (from Togo, Sudan and Kenya)HighThickHigh
56Vloeberghs et al (2012)127 The NetherlandsPsychosocial and health experiences.66 women (from Somalia, Sudan, Eritrea, Ethiopia and Sierra Leone)HighThinMedium
57Wiklund et al (2000)132 SwedenMaternity care experiences.9 Somali womenMediumThinMedium
  • FGM/C, female genital mutilation/cutting.