Table 2A

Comparison of Generation 1 participants (mothers) and non-participants (mothers) (year 1, year 5) by several characteristics of the mothers at the time of recruitment

Follow-upYear 1Year 2Year 3Year 5
ParticipantP valueParticipantP valueParticipantP valueParticipantP value
NoYesNoYesNoYesNoYes
n (%)n (%)n (%)n (%)n (%)n (%)n (%)n (%)
Total404 (14.8)2326 (85.2)839 (30.7)1891 (69.3)564 (20.7)2166 (79.3)596 (21.8)2134 (78.2)
Age (years)<0.001<0.001<0.001<0.001
 <2083 (20.5)190 (8.2)137 (16.3)136 (7.2)98 (17.4)175 (8.1)104 (17.4)169 (7.9)
 20–25113 (28.0)496 (20.2)227 (27.1)355 (18.8)160 (28.4)422 (19.5)175 (29.4)407 (19.1)
 25–30102 (25.2)722 (31.0)229 (27.3)595 (31.5)154 (27.3)670 (30.9)167 (28.0)657 (30.8)
 30–3571 (17.6)620 (26.7)172 (20.5)519 (27.4)101 (17.9)590 (27.2)108 (18.1)583 (27.3)
 ≥3535 (8.7)325 (14.0)74 (8.8)286 (15.1)51 (9.0)309 (14.3)42 (7.0)318 (14.9)
Education<0.001<0.001<0.001<0.001
 ≤Year 961 (15.1)150 (6.4)104 (12.4)107 (5.7)82 (14.5)129 (6.0)77 (12.9)134 (6.3)
 Year 10113 (28.0)545 (23.4)237 (28.2)421 (22.3)175 (31.0)483 (22.3)187 (31.4)471 (22.1)
 Year 11–1288 (21.8)557 (23.9)207 (24.7)438 (23.2)124 (22.0)521 (24.1)133 (22.3)512 (24.0)
 TAFE*/Trade105 (26.0)785 (33.7)212 (25.3)678 (35.9)145 (25.7)745 (34.4)146 (24.5)744 (34.9)
 Tertiary26 (6.4)240 (10.3)54 (6.4)212 (11.2)24 (4.3)242 (11.2)34 (5.7)232 (10.9)
Missing11 (2.7)49 (2.1)25 (3.0)35 (1.9)14 (2.5)46 (2.1)19 (3.2)41 (1.9)
Ethnicity<0.001<0.001<0.001<0.001
 Caucasian321 (79.5)2084 (89.6)697 (83.1)1708 (90.3)461 (81.7)1944 (89.8)493 (82.7)1912 (89.6)
 ATSI†41 (10.1)24 (1.0)52 (6.2)13 (0.7)44 (7.8)21 (1.0)39 (6.5)26 (1.2)
 Other42 (10.4)218 (9.4)90 (10.7)170 (9.0)59 (10.5)201 (9.3)64 (10.7)196 (9.2)
Income*<0.001<0.001<0.001<0.001
 Low117 (29.0)344 (14.8)193 (23.0)268 (14.2)138 (24.5)323 (14.9)151 (25.3)310 (14.5)
 Medium165 (40.8)1089 (46.8)380 (45.3)874 (46.2)262 (46.5)992 (45.8)276 (46.3)978 (45.8)
 High65 (16.1)728 (31.3)156 (18.6)637 (33.7)92 (16.3)701 (32.4)97 (16.3)696 (32.6)
Missing57 (14.1)165 (7.1)110 (13.1)112 (5.9)72 (12.8)150 (6.9)72 (12.1)150 (7.0)
IRSAD tertile†<0.001<0.001<0.001<0.001
 Low94 (23.3)512 (22.0)194 (23.1)412 (21.8)142 (25.2)464 (21.4)147 (24.7)459 (21.5)
 Medium60 (14.9)559 (24.0)152 (18.1)467 (24.6)95 (16.8)524 (24.2)97 (16.3)522 (24.5)
 High54 (13.4)563 (24.2)140 (16.7)477 (25.2)73 (12.9)544 (25.1)78 (13.1)539 (25.3)
Missing196 (48.5)692 (29.8)353 (42.1)535 (28.3)254 (45.0)634 (29.3)274 (46.0)614 (28.8)
  • *Family income.

  • †Area-level socioeconomic status based on IRSAD. Low levels=most disadvantaged, high levels=most advantaged.

  • ATSI, Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander; IRSAD, Index of Relative Socio-economic Advantage and Disadvantage; TAFE, technical and further education.