Table 2

Characteristics of the studies included in the systematic review

StudyToolCountryTime framePopulationSample sizeAge rangeExclusion criteriaReference standard
Chourdakis et al63PYMS; STAMP; STRONGkids12 countries: Croatia, Israel, Denmark, Italy, France, Poland, Germany, Greece, The Netherlands, UK, RomaniaFeb 2010 to July 2011Clinical and surgical patients25671 month to 18 yearsAccident and Emergency Department of Day Care UnitWHO (BMI, MUAC, TSFT)
Durakbaşa et al60STRONGkidsTurkeyApril to July 2012Surgical patients494>1 monthAge <30 days, admitted to clinics other than paediatric surgery ward or had another operation in the preceding 30 daysWHO (WFH, BMI) for acute malnutrition, WHO (HFA) for chronic malnutrition
Galera-Martinez et al61STRONGkids; STAMPSpainMay 2013Clinical and surgical patients223>1 monthPaediatric ICU, oncology, day surgery ward, patients who could not be weighed and measured at admissionWHO (BMI SDS)
Gerasimidis et al7PYMSUK23 June to 28 Oct 2008Clinical and surgical patients2471–16 yearsCardiology, renal, orthopaedic specialties, critical careFull dietetic assessment: dietary history, anthropometric measurements. Body composition characteristics
Hulst et al2STRONGkidsThe Netherlands26–28 Nov 2007Clinical and surgical patients417>1 month to 18 yearsICU, LOS <1 dayWHO (HFA, WFH) on The Netherlands National Standards16
Huysentruyt et al51STRONGkidsBelgiumDec 2010 to April 2011Clinical and surgical patients3681 month to 16 years<24 hours LOS, ICU, readmitted for same condition within 7 daysWHO (WFH) for acute malnutrition, WHO (HFA) for chronic malnutrition
Johnson et al42NNSTUK2010Neonatal patients in ICU909Infants <2 weeks at dischargeWHO (WFA) with UK-WHO growth chart
Ling et al52STAMP; STRONGkidsUKTwo consecutive days in August 2009Inpatients566 weeks to 16 yearsAge <1 month, LOS <1 day, height measurement not accurately obtained, ICU, day surgery wardWHO (WFH, BMI if HFA); WFH: height<120 cm; BMI: height>120 cm; WHO (HFA) for chronic malnutrition
Mahdavi et al38SGAIranJune 2008 to Aug 2008Clinical and surgical patients1402–12 yearsEmergency Department, newborn ICU, newborn Special Care UnitsAnthropometric, biochemical measurements (WFA, HFA, WFH, TSF, MAC, serum albumin, transferrin). Patients classified as undernourished when at least two parameters are subnormal
Mărginean et al53STRONGkids; modified STRONGkidsRomania1 May 2011 to 30 Jan 2012Tertiary paediatric teaching hospital3261–17 yearsObese, active malignancy, LOS <24 hoursWHO (WFH, HFA); total serum protein (normal: 6.6–8.7 mg/dL)
Martinez-Nadal et al64CANS scoreSpain2003–2014Neonatal patients14 477NewbornsNot reportedRoher’s Ponderal Index (PI<2.2 g/cm3)
McCarthy et al32STAMPUKApril to June 2004Clinical and surgical patients2382–17 yearsLOS <24 hours, unobtainable weight or height measurementsFull nutritional assessment: historical records, nutritional measurements, anthropometry
McDonald41Nutrition Risk Screening Tool in CFUSANot reportedPaediatric patients with 
852–20 yearsNot reportedCFF Consensus Report criteria; full dietetic assessment: MUAC and/or TSF less than 25th percentile for sex and age, suboptimal serum vitamin and/or trace mineral levels, pulmonary exacerbation, suboptimal dietary intake
Moeeni et al54PYMS; STRONGkids; STAMPIran26 Dec 2010 to 19 Jan 2011Tertiary paediatric teaching hospital1191–17 yearsMalignancy, LOS <24 hoursWHO (WFH, HFA, BMI if WFH or HFA missing)
Moeeni et al55STRONGkids-simplifiedNew Zealand30 Oct to 30 Dec 2012Clinical and surgical patients1621 month to 17 yearsLOS <24 hours, oncological patientsWHO (BMI, WFA, HFA, WFH)
Murphy et al39SCANAustraliaNot reportedPaediatric oncology patients325–18 yearsLOS <24 hours, clinically unstable, conditions that affect hydration, non-English speakingSGNA
Rub et al57STAMP; STAMP-modifiedIsraelNot reportedOutpatients601–6 yearsChildren cared for in outpatient clinicsFull nutritional assessment: dietary history, anthropometric measurements, body composition characteristics
Soundarya et al62CANS scoreIndiaNot reportedMaternity hospital3000–48 hoursNewborns with congenital anomalies, newborns <37 completed weeks gestation, multiple pregnancies, NICU care, mother’s gestational diabetes mellitus, unreliable estimation of gestational ageAnthropometry based on Indian growth charts (Roher’s Ponderal Index, head circumference to length ratio, chest circumference or MUAC and/or MUAC to head circumference ratio, BMI)
Souza Dos
Santos et al40
Nutrition screening tool for pediatric patients with CFBrazilNot reportedPediatric patients with CF diagnosis826–18 yearsNot reportedCFF Consensus Report criteria; Nutritional risk screening tool proposed by McDonald41
Spagnuolo et al58STRONGkidsItalyOct 2012 to Nov 2012Clinical and surgical patients1441–18 yearsICU patientsWHO (BMI) for acute malnutrition, WHO (HFA) for chronic malnutrition
Thomas et al65STAMP; PMST (STAMP-modified); PYMSUKDec 2014 to March 2015Children in tertiary hospital acute units3000–17.6 yearsNot reported.WHO (HFA, WFH, BMI)
Wang et al6STAMPChinaJuly 2014 to July 2015Inpatients and outpatients with SCI451–12 yearsFever or diarrhoea on admission, history of hepatopathy, nephropathy or formal dietetic assessment and nutritional therapy that may have introduced bias towards nutrition status from medical recordsWHO (BMI for age, WFA, HFA)
White et al9PNST; SGNAAustraliaSept 2012 to June 2013Clinical and surgical patients2950–16 yearsLOS <24 hours, clinically unstable, conditions that affect hydration, non-English speakingWHO (BMI for age, HFA, WFA) for 0–2 years; CDC 2000 for 2–20 years; SGNA
Wiskin et al59STAMP; STRONGkids; SPNRS; PYMSUKDec 2009 to June 2010Paediatric patients with IBD, outpatients and inpatients463–17 yearsNot reported.ICD-10; mild: weight SDS <-2; moderate: SDS between −2 and −3; severe: SDS ≥−3
Wong et al14STAMPUKJan to Dec 2010Paediatric patients with SCI516 months to 18 yearsLOS <24 hours, ICUFull dietetic assessment: clinical, nutritional, historical records
Wonoputri et al56PYMS; STAMP; STRONGkidsIndonesiaJan to Feb 2014Clinical patients1161–15 yearsLOS <24 hoursSGNA, WHO growth chart (results not reported)
  • BMI, body mass index; CANS, Clinical Assessment of Nutritional Status; CDC, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; CF, cystic fibrosis; CFF, Cystic Fibrosis Foundation; HFA, height for age; IBD, inflammatory bowel disease; ICD, International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems; ICU, intensive care unit; LOS, length of hospital stay; MAC, mid-arm circumference; MUAC, mid-upper arm circumference; NICU, Neonatal Intensive Care Unit; NNST, Neonatal Nutrition Screening Tool; PNST, Paediatric Nutrition Screening Tool; PYMS, Paediatric Yorkhill Malnutrition Score; SCAN, Nutrition Screening Tool for Childhood Cancer; SCI, spinal cord injuries; SDS, SD score; SGA, Subjective Global Assessment; SGNA, Subjective Global Nutritional Assessment; SPNRS Simple Paediatric Nutrition Risk Score; STAMP, Screening Tool for the Assessment of Malnutrition in Paediatrics; STRONGkids, Screening Tool for Risk on Nutritional Status and Growth; TSFT, triceps skin fold thickness; WFA, weight for age; WFH, weight for height.