Table 2

Study characteristics related to design of study, setting, number of participants, mean age, gender, inclusion and exclusion criteria, and follow-up

Author, yearDesign of studyLocationNo
Mean ageNo male (%)Inclusion criteriaExclusion criteriaFollow-up
Apariman, 200644 Quasi-RCTThailand, AsianI: 30
I: 34.37
C: 34.93
Non-cancer gynaecological conditions included if they could speak and read Thai and were able to swallow drug capsules.Patients under 18 years old, pregnant, had underlying gastrointestinal or hepatic diseases, received antiemetic drug or any medications that might have side effects of nausea or vomiting within 24 hours before surgery, or had a history of ginger allergy. Patients who would undergo laparoscopic hysterectomy were also excluded.6 hours
Deng, 200645; Deng, 201046 RCTChina, AsianI: 30
I: 45.20
C: 46.10
Patients with rheumatic heart disease of ASA grade II–III who were scheduled for mitral valve replacement with intravenous anaesthesiaAny cerebrovascular, neurological or metabolic diseases prior to surgery, any organ failure; haematological disease, respiratory illnesses, pulmonary hypertension, abnormal liver or renal function.3 hours
Gharabaghi, 201147 RCTIran, EuropeI: 46
I: 28.78
C: 22.28
Pregnant females within the age range of 18–40 years having term pregnancy, without the history of hypersensitivity to local anaesthetics (Lidocaine, Marcaine) and with the body mass index of 9.24 to 5.18 who were supposed to undergo caesarean section for different reasons.Emergency caesarean sections, need to general anaesthesia, history of psychological disorder, history of hypersensitivity to local anaesthetics and Rosa damascena extract, prolongation of surgery more than 1 hour, emergence of intraoperative complications, having underlying diseases, such as diabetes and hypertension and existence of adhesions due to previous surgeries.24 hours
Huang, 199648 RCTChina, AsianI: 15
I: 37
C: 35.80
Patients undergoing heart valve replacement.Not reported/none.6 hours
Nanthakomon, 200649 RCTThailand,
I: 60
I: not reported
C: not reported
All patients were ASA grade 1 or 2.Any patients that were pregnant, suffered from hepatitis or gastrointestinal disease, ingested alcohol, opioids or antiemetics within 24 hours prior to the surgery.24 hours
Pietri, 199750 RCTFrance, EuropeI: 10
I: 63
C: 63
(a) Non-urgent open-heart surgery, (b) no recent (1 month) myocardial infarction, (c) no severe cardiac or renal failure, (d) no severe hypertension and (e) interruption of any anti-ischaemic, anti-inflammatory, vasoactive or antioxidant medications for at least 5 days before surgery.Not reported/none.15 days
Safaei, 201751 RCTIran, EuropeI: 29
IVC: 29
I: 56.30
IVC: 56.70
I: 75.80
IVC: 72.40
Patients undergoing first time elective CABG surgery without concomitant procedures were included.Urgent patients, complicated high risk patients, diabetics, those who needed another heart surgery beside CABG and if the ischaemic time exceeded 120 min.2 hours
Wang, 200852 RCTChina, AsianI: 15
I: 39.40
C: 41.10
Patients diagnosed with chronic rheumatic valvular disease and valvular degeneration, aged 20–60, cardiac function NYHA grade II to III.Immunological disease; use of topic steroids or NSAIDS 2 weeks prior to surgery; preoperative fever, white cell count >109/L, positive antistreptolysin O test; abnormal liver or renal function.1 day
Xie, 200353 RCTChina, AsianI: 39
I: 55.60
C: 54.10
30 C:59
Patients with CCS grade II to IV angina, target vessel occlusion >75% on selective coronary angiography, grade A and B ACC/AHA arterial stenosis undergoing percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty and stenting.No angina 48 hours prior to surgery.7 days
Zeraati, 201654 RCTIran, EuropeI: 46
C: 46
I: not reported
C: not reported
I: 0
C: 0
Pregnant women who had elective caesarean section with spinal anaesthesia.Patients with a drop in fetal heart rate, placenta detachment, or placenta previa; who weighed over 90 kg, who were diabetic, who had an underlying gastrointestinal disease, who had used antinausea or antivomiting drugs in the 24 hours before the surgery, who were not fasting, who had middle ear disease, who had more than a 20% drop in blood pressure from the baseline after spinal anaesthesia, who had gestational hypertension, who had a history of pelvic surgery except caesarean section, or who had a history of nausea and vomiting during the past 24 hours.4 hours
Zhou, 200055 RCTChina, AsianHM1: 6
HM2: 6
HM3: 6
C: 6
HM1: 40
HM2: 33.80
HM3: 37.80
C: 39.50
HM1: 83.33
HM2: 66.67
HM3: 66.67
C: 66.67
Patients suffering from ASA grade II–IV rheumatic valvular disease or those suffering from congenital ventricular septal defect.Not reported/none.3 hours
  • ACC, American College of Cardiology; AHA, American Heart Association; ASA, American Society of Anesthesia; C, control group; CABG, Coronary artery bypass graft; CCS Angina Grade, Canadian Cardiovascular Society; HM1, herbal medicine group 1; HM2, herbal medicine group 2; HM3, herbal medicine group 3; I, intervention; IVC, Intervention vitamin C; no, number;  NSAIDs, Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs; NYHA  standard,  New York Heart Association;  RCT, randomised controlled trial.