Table 3

Maternal and birth characteristics and available samples, in the pregnancy study

Maternal characteristics at inclusionPregnancy cohort, n=538 n included in calculations
Age (years)27 (23–33.5)532
Height (cm)156 (152–159)535
Weight (kg)55.6 (49.1–63.8)531
Maternal first antenatal visit BMI (kg/m2)23 (20.5–26.1)528
Systolic blood pressure (mm Hg)112 (12)535
Diastolic blood pressure (mm Hg)71 (10)535
Parity2 (1–4)538
 None or incomplete primary122 (22.7)
 Complete primary359 (66.7)
 Secondary or higher57 (10.6)
Source of domestic water536
 Private tap or bore hole25 (4.7)
 Public tap or bore hole369 (68.8)
 River/pool142 (26.4)
Type of toilet facility536
 Flush160 (29.9)
 Pit370 (69.0)
 None6 (1.1)
Diabetes mellitus (known)2 (0.4)538
HIV-seropositive17 (3.4%)500
Pregnancy and birth characteristics
Gestational age (days) at enrolment63 (45–85)517†
Anaemia during pregnancy (Hb<11 g/dL)359 (66.7%)538
Moderate-severe anaemia during pregnancy (Hb≤9 g/dL)85 (15.8%)538
Severe anaemia during pregnancy (Hb≤8 g/dL)33 (6.3%)538
Malaria during pregnancy185 (34.4%)538
Early miscarriage (GA≤14 weeks)72 (13.4%)538
Late miscarriage (GA>14 weeks, GA≤22 weeks)8‡ (1.5%)538
 At hospital369 (86.4%)
 At home45 (10.5%)
 At dispensary13 (3.0%)
Caesarean section35 (8.2%)426
Newborns delivered438 (410 singleton, 28 twins)427 women
Sex (boys)206 (48.5%)425
Gestational age (days) at delivery (GA>22 weeks)280 (274–286)424§
Preterm delivery (GA>22 and GA<37 weeks)27 (6.4%)424§
Birth weight (g)¶3016 (486)379
Low birth weight≤2500 g¶39 (10.3%)379
Stillbirth# 12435
Neonatal death (before 28 days)¶13423
Perinatal mortality rate (stillbirth+first 7 days of life)¶53/1000435
Neonatal anthropometry after 28 days of life400410
Paternal follow-up113
Blood samples, biopsies and stereology
GA 11–14 weeks259276
AV 2 (GA 20 weeks)389391
AV 3 (GA 26 weeks)391393
AV 4 (GA 32 weeks)404404
AV 5 (GA 37 weeks)367370
Cord blood**366438
Placental epigenetic samples**395427
Placental stereology samples‡393427
  • Data are presented as mean (SD), median (IQR) or n (%).

  • *Includes: all other tribe groups including tribes with <10% prevalence.

  • †Among the 538 women 21 had a positive UPT on inclusion into the pregnancy study but had a miscarriage before GA was estimated by ultrasound evaluation.

  • ‡Three of these participants had a very late miscarriage with complete delivery data collected, and are therefore included in the total number of 427 deliveries.

  • §Three late miscarriages are excluded.

  • ¶Includes: singleton, live births, no major malformation, GA >22 weeks.

  • **Includes: all neonates (singleton + twins).

  • AV, antenatal visit; BMI, body mass index; GA, gestational age; Hb, haemoglobin.