Table 1

Study activities, data collected and methods used

Data collectedMethod, if applicableInclusion preconception studyThird monthly follow-up visitsInclusion pregnancy studyVisits weeks 11–14AV1 weeks 20–22AV2 weeks 26–28AV3 weeks
32–34
AV4 weeks 37–39DeliveryNeonatal follow-upPaternal visit
AgeInterviewXXX
EthnicityInterviewXXX
Socioeconomic statusInterviewXXX
ReligionInterviewXXX
Partner and methods of family planningInterviewXX
Gravidity and obstetric historyInterviewXX
Medical historyInterviewXXX
Family disposition to chronic diseaseInterviewXXX
Substance abuseInterviewXX
Usage of medicationInterviewXXXXXXXXXX
HeightStadiometer, SECA KG, Hamburg, GermanyXX
WeightDigital weighing scale, SECA KG, Hamburg, GermanyXXXXXXXXX
Waist circumferenceAt midpoint between last rib and top of iliac crestXXXXXXXX
Hip circumferenceAt maximum circumference over the buttocksXXXXXXXX
Mid upper arm circumferenceAt midpoint of upper armXXXXXXXXX
Triceps skinfold thicknessHarpenden Skinfold Calliper Model HSB-BI, Baty International, UKXXXXXXXX
Blood pressureR-champion N, Rudolf Riester, Jungingen, GermanyXXXXXXXXX
Helminthic intestinal infection*In 10% formalin, analysed with the formol-ether techniqueX
UltrasoundSonoSite TITAN and Turbo, US High resolution, Bothell, Washington, USA
Gestational ageCrown-rump length until 13+6, head circumference ≥14+0XX
Fetal weightHadlock formula on head and abdominal circumference and femur lengthXXXX
Uterine/umbilical artery flowPulsatile and resistance index, S/D ratio, diastolic notchXXXXX
Urine samples
Pregnancy testUrine-HCG, Vista Care Company, Shandong, ChinaXXX
Albuminuria, nitrite, glucosuriaCombiscreen 7, Alere, Massachusetts, USAXXXXXXXX
Venous blood samples
Serum6 mL serum tube, BD Diagnostics, Franklin Lakes, New Jersey, USAXXXXXXXX
Plasma6 mL EDTA tube, BD Diagnostics, Franklin Lakes, New Jersey, USAXXXXXXXXX
Buffy coatPrepared from EDTA tubeXXXXX
Full red blood pictureKX21 N Analyzer, Sysmex Corporation, Kobe, JapanXXXXXXXXXX
Point-of-care haemoglobinHemoCue Glucose 301 RTXXX
C reactive proteinAfinion AS100 Analyzer, Axis-Shield PoC AS, Oslo, NorwayXXXX
Glucose†HemoCue Glucose 201 RTXXX
HbA1c†Afinion AS100 Analyzer, Axis-Shield PoC AS, Oslo, NorwayXX
HIVAlere HIV-1/2 kit, Stockport, UK,
Trinity Biotech Unigold kit, Wicklow, Ireland
XXX
MalariaParaHIT, Span Diagnostics, Gujarat India
Blood smear for microscopy, dried blood spot for PCR
XXXXXXXX
Folic acid, vitamin B12 Vista 1500 system, Siemens Healthcare, Erlangen, GermanyXXXX
Bilirubin, ferritin, ALAT, albuminVitros DT60II, Diamond Diagnostics, Holliston, Massachusetts, USAXXXX
Sickle cell disease, thalassaemia, G6PD diseaseAllele specific PCR and ELISA technologyX
IGF-1IDS-iSYS Multi-Discipline Automated Analyser, Tyne and Wear, UKXXXXX
IGF-2, IGFBP-1TR-IFMA, 1420 Multilabel Counter Victor 3, Perkin Elmer, Massachusetts, USAXXXXX
VEGF-ATR-IFMA, 1420 Multilabel Counter Victor 3, Perkin Elmer, Massachusetts, USAXXXXX
sFlt-1, PlGF, PAPP-AKryptor compact Plus, ThermoFisher Scientific, Massachusetts, USAXXXXX
OGTT2 hour OGTTX
Cord blood samples
Serum6 mL, BD Diagnostics, Franklin Lakes, New Jersey, USAX
Plasma6 mL, BD Diagnostics, Franklin Lakes, New Jersey, USA
Full red blood cell pictureSysmex KX 21N Hematology Analyzer, Sysmex Corporation Kobe, JapanX
PAXgene tubePreAnalytiX, Hombrechtikon, SwitzerlandX
Buffy coatPrepared from EDTA tubeX
Placental assessmentMeasuring tape, digital scale 852, SECA, UKX
Placental and cord biopsies8 mm punch, Miltex, Rietheim-Weilheim, GermanyX
Placental stereology samplesAccu-Edge Trimming Knife Handle F130, Sakura Finetek, Leiden, the NetherlandsX
Placenta blood for malariaBlood smear for light microscopy for parasites, dried blood spot for PCRX
Neonatal assessment
WeightDigital baby weighing scale M107600, ADE, GermanyXX
LengthBaby Infantometer 417, SECA KG, Hamburg, GermanyXX
Head circumferenceXX
Abdominal circumferenceXX
Mid upper arm circumferenceAt midpoint of upper armXX
Skinfold thicknessHarpenden Skinfold Calliper Model HSB-BI, Baty International, UKXX
Blood sample if missing cord bloodSpecifics depends on what was missed at deliveryX
  • *Only a subgroup of 486 women.

  • †Glucose and HbA1c were measured at time of OGTT and at later visits if OGTT was positive for diabetes.

  • ALAT, alanine transaminase; AV, antenatal visit; G6PD, glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency; IGF, insulin-like growth factor; IGBFP-1, Insulin-like growth factor binding protein 1; OGTT, oral glucose tolerance test; PAPP-A, Pregnancy‐associated plasma protein A; PlGF, placental growth factor; sFlt, Soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1; TR-IFMA, Time-resolved immunofluorometric assay; VEGF-A, vascular endothelial growth factor A.