Table 1

Association of sociodemographic factors and hypertension (n=10 215)

Sociodemographic factorHypertension
Total
n
Hypertension
n (%)
Unadjusted
COR (95% CI)
P valueAdjusted
AOR (95% CI)
P value
Ethnicity
 Chinese48171519 (31.5)1 (Ref.) 0.001* 1 (Ref.) <0.001*
 Malay2659879 (33.1)1.07 (0.97 to 1.19)0.177 1.18 (1.05 to 1.34) 0.007
 Indian2739780 (28.5) 0.86 (0.78 to 0.96) 0.006 0.92 (0.81 to 1.04)0.165
Age
 <403258292 (9.0)1 (Ref.) <0.001* 1 (Ref.) <0.001*
 40–493187798 (25.0) 3.39 (2.94 to 3.92) <0.001 3.18 (2.73 to 3.71) <0.001
 50–5924201106 (45.7) 8.55 (7.40 to 9.88) <0.001 7.54 (6.44, to 8.82) <0.001
 ≥601349982 (72.8) 27.18 (22.93 to 32.21) <0.001 19.97 (16.47, to 24.23) <0.001
Gender
 Female57951682 (29.0)1 (Ref.)1 (Ref.)
 Male44191496 (33.9) 1.25 (1.15 to 1.36) <0.001 1.65 (1.47, to 1.85) <0.001
Highest education level
 Primary or lower27631334 (48.3)1 (Ref.) <0.001* 1 (Ref.) <0.001*
 Secondary43461271 (29.2) 0.44 (0.40 to 0.49) <0.001 0.70 (0.62, to 0.78) <0.001
 Tertiary or higher3100573 (18.5) 0.24 (0.22 to 0.27) <0.001 0.59 (0.50, to 0.69) <0.001
Marital status
 Currently married77572555 (32.9)1 (Ref.)1 (Ref.)
 Not currently married2452623 (25.4) 0.69 (0.63 to 0.77) <0.001 1.11 (0.97 to 1.26)0.126
Work status
 Working/Studying full time69721766 (25.3)1 (Ref.) <0.001* 1 (Ref.) <0.001*
 Homemaker2264886 (39.1) 1.90 (1.71 to 2.10) <0.001 1.36 (1.19 to 1.56) <0.001
 Retired/Unemployed930511 (54.9) 3.60 (3.13 to 4.14) <0.001 1.20 (1.01 to 1.43) 0.042
Monthly household income (SGD)†
 <20002277800 (35.1)1 (Ref.) <0.001* 1 (Ref.)0.172*
 2000–39992619740 (28.3) 0.73 (0.64 to 0.82) <0.001 1.07 (0.93 to 1.23)0.343
 4000–59991664411 (24.7) 0.61 (0.53 to 0.70) <0.001 1.03 (0.88 to 1.22)0.691
 ≥60001462349 (23.9) 0.58 (0.50 to 0.67) <0.001 1.13 (0.94 to 1.36)0.202
  • COR was derived from bivariate logistic regression model.

  • AOR was derived from multivariable logistic regression model mutually adjusted for all other sociodemographic factors.

  • Bolded values are two-sided p values <0.05.

  • *Overall p value.

  • †Of all participants, 21.5% did not provide information on their average monthly household income. They have been categorised as ‘unknown income’ and included for analysis.

  • AOR, adjusted OR; COR, crude OR; SGD, Singapore Dollar.