Table 3

Association of sociodemographic factors and unawareness among hypertensives (n=3175), untreated among those who were aware of hypertension (n=1618)

Sociodemographic factorUnawareness among hypertensivesUntreated among aware
COR (95% CI)P valueAOR (95%CI)P valueCOR (95% CI)P valueAOR (95% CI)P value
Ethnicity
 Chinese1 (Ref) 0.001* 1 (Ref) 0.0046* 1 (Ref)0.335*1 (Ref)0.520*
 Malay 1.19 (1.01 to 1.41) 0.037 1.11 (0.93 to 1.32)0.2580.93 (0.70 to 1.24)0.6300.87 (0.64 to 1.20)0.398
 Indian 0.83 (0.70 to 0.99) 0.037 0.80 (0.67 to 0.96) 0.018 1.17 (0.89 to 1.52)0.2571.05 (0.78 to 1.42)0.731
Age
 <401 (Ref) <0.001* 1 (Ref) <0.001* 1 (Ref) <0.001* 1 (Ref) <0.001*
 40–490.89 (0.67 to 1.16)0.3830.89 (0.67 to 1.18)0.403 0.37 (0.24 to 0.57) <0.001 0.39 (0.25 to 0.61) <0.001
 50–59 0.58 (0.44 to 0.75) <0.001 0.58 (0.44 to 0.77) <0.001 0.20 (0.13 to 0.31) <0.001 0.22 (0.14 to 0.34) <0.001
 ≥60 0.50 (0.39 to 0.66) <0.001 0.53 (0.39 to 0.72) <0.001 0.12 (0.08 to 0.19) <0.001 0.13 (0.08 to 0.21) <0.001
Gender
 Female1 (Ref)1 (Ref)1 (Ref)1 (Ref)
 Male1.08 (0.94 to 1.25)0.2591.15 (0.96 to 1.37)0.140 1.68 (1.34 to 2.11) <0.001 1.51 (1.12 to 2.04) 0.007
Highest education level
 Primary or lower1 (Ref) 0.007* 1 (Ref)0.310*1 (Ref) 0.007* 1 (Ref) 0.033*
 Secondary 1.27 (1.09 to 1.48) 0.002 1.13 (0.95 to 1.33)0.1621.02 (0.80 to 1.32)0.849 0.69 (0.52 to 0.91) 0.010
 Tertiary or higher1.21 (1.00 to 1.48)0.0541.01 (0.80 to 1.28)0.937 1.59 (1.17 to 2.15) 0.003 0.83 (0.56 to 1.23)0.362
Marital status
 Currently married1 (Ref)1 (Ref)1 (Ref)1 (Ref)
 Not currently married1.02 (0.85 to 1.21)0.8601.09 (0.91 to 1.32)0.3560.88 (0.66 to 1.17)0.3671.05 (0.76 to 1.45)0.781
Work status
 Working/Studying full time1 (Ref) 0.002* 1 (Ref)0.139*1 (Ref) <0.001* 1 (Ref)0.557*
 Homemaker0.91 (0.77 to 1.07)0.2541.12 (0.91 to 1.39)0.275 0.47 (0.35 to 0.62) <0.001 0.83 (0.58 to 1.19)0.316
 Retired/Unemployed 0.70 (0.58 to 0.86) 0.001 0.86 (0.69 to 1.08)0.203 0.49 (0.35 to 0.68) <0.001 0.88 (0.60 to 1.30)0.511
Monthly household income (SGD)†
 <20001 (Ref)0.845*1 (Ref)0.837*1 (Ref) 0.001* 1 (Ref)0.147*
 2000–39991.00 (0.82 to 1.22)0.9960.91 (0.74 to 1.12)0.3911.09 (0.80 to 1.48)0.6000.87 (0.62 to 1.22)0.425
 4000–59991.08 (0.85 to 1.37)0.5300.97 (0.75 to 1.25)0.8020.79 (0.54 to 1.18)0.249 0.62 (0.40 to 0.96) 0.031
 ≥60000.95 (0.74 to 1.22)0.6800.86 (0.65 to 1.14)0.2961.07 (0.73 to 1.58)0.7320.76 (0.48 to 1.21)0.242
  • AOR was derived from multivariable logistic regression model mutually adjusted for all other sociodemographic factors.

  • COR was derived from bivariate logistic regression model.

  • Bolded values are two-sided p values<0.05.

  • *Overall p value.

  • †Of all participants, 21.5% did not provide information on their average monthly household income. They have been categorised as ‘unknown income’ and included for analysis.

  • AOR , adjusted OR; COR, crude OR; SGD, Singapore Dollar.