Table 2

Association of sociodemographic factors and hypertension by ethnic groups, that is, Chinese (n=4817), Malay (n=2659) and Indian (n=2739)

Sociodemographic factorEthnicity
ChineseMalayIndian
AOR (95% CI)P valueAOR (95% CI)P valueAOR (95% CI)P value
Age
 <401 (Ref) <0.001* 1 (Ref) <0.001* 1 (Ref) <0.001*
 40–49 2.50 (1.99 to 3.15) <0.001 4.04 (3.03 to 5.38) <0.001 3.44 (2.53 to 4.68) <0.001
 50–59 6.44 (5.10 to 8.15) <0.001 8.38 (6.20 to 11.33) <0.001 8.26 (6.07 to 11.25) <0.001
 ≥60 14.37 (10.82 to 19.06) <0.001 30.53 (20.30 to 45.92) <0.001 23.81 (16.40 to 34.56) <0.001
Gender
 Female1 (Ref)1 (Ref)1 (Ref)
 Male 1.85 (1.58 to 2.17) <0.001 1.08 (0.85 to 1.37)0.527 1.97 (1.56 to 2.50) <0.001
Highest education level
 Primary or lower1 (Ref) <0.001* 1 (Ref) 0.017* 1 (Ref) <0.001*
 Secondary 0.65 (0.54 to 0.77) <0.001 0.73 (0.59 to 0.91) 0.005 0.71 (0.57 to 0.88) 0.002
 Tertiary or higher 0.54 (0.43 to 0.67) <0.001 0.73 (0.52 to 1.04)0.086 0.50 (0.36 to 0.68) <0.001
Marital status
 Currently married1 (Ref)1 (Ref)1 (Ref)
 Not currently married1.05 (0.87 to 1.27)0.6161.00 (0.77 to 1.31)0.9721.25 (0.98 to 1.59)0.074
Work status
 Working/Studying full time1 (Ref) 0.0078* 1 (Ref)0.126*1 (Ref)0.066*
 Homemaker 1.30 (1.05 to 1.61) 0.015 1.29 (1.00 to 1.67) 0.048 1.37 (1.05 to 1.79) 0.021
 Retired/Unemployed 1.38 (1.06 to 1.78) 0.015 0.97 (0.67 to 1.43)0.8941.15 (0.83 to 1.60)0.398
Monthly household income (SGD)†
 <20001 (Ref)0.391*1 (Ref) <0.001* 1 (Ref)0.137*
 2000–39990.88 (0.69 to 1.12)0.3061.07 (0.84 to 1.37)0.593 1.28 (1.00 to 1.64) 0.046
 4000–59991.04 (0.80 to 1.36)0.7641.02 (0.76 to 1.37)0.8790.92 (0.67to 1.25)0.579
 ≥60001.12 (0.86 to 1.46)0.4010.72 (0.47 to 1.11)0.1331.20 (0.83 to 1.75)0.334
  • Bolded values are two-sided p values <0.05.

  • COR was derived from bivariate logistic regression model.

  • AOR was derived from multivariable logistic regression model mutually adjusted for all other sociodemographic factors.

  • *Overall p value.

  • †Of all participants, 21.5% did not provide information on their average monthly household income. They have been categorised as ‘unknown income’ and included for analysis.

  • AOR, adjusted OR; COR, crude OR; SGD, Singapore Dollar.