Table 4

Univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses of variables associated with cervicovaginal Chlamydia trachomatis infection among Creole and Maroon women, Paramaribo, Suriname, 2009–2010

NAAT positiveUnivariable OR (95% CI)P valueMultivariable-adjusted OR (95% CI)*P value
n/N (%)
Demographic characteristics
 Ethnic group
  Creole37/278 (13.3)10.479
  Maroon15/138 (10.9)0.79 (0.42 to 1.50)
 Recruitment site
  Family planning clinic25/284 (8.8)10.00110.003
  STI clinic27/132 (20.5)2.66 (1.48 to 4.80)2.59 (1.39 to 4.83)
 Age in years0.0010.002
  <2525/129 (19.4)4.76 (1.75 to 12.92)4.37 (1.59 to 12.00)
  25–2917/93 (18.3)4.43 (1.56 to 12.54)4.96 (1.72 to 14.26)
  30–345/90 (5.6)1.17 (0.33 to 4.16)1.20 (0.33 to 4.35)
  ≥355/104 (4.8)11
 Education0.444
  Low19/161 (11.8)1.03 (0.39 to 2.73)
  Medium23/188 (12.2)1.07 (0.41 to 2.78)
  High6/52 (11.5)1
  Unknown4/15 (26.7)2.79 (0.67 to 11.60)
Vaginal hygiene
 Performed vaginal hygiene
  No21/195 (10.8)10.317
  Yes31/221 (14.0)1.35 (0.75 to 2.44)
 Herb use
  No27/251 (10.8)10.18710.564
  Yes25/165 (15.2)1.48 (0.83 to 2.66)1.20 (0.65 to 2.22)
 Frequency of performing vaginal hygiene†
  Daily16/89 (18.0)1.82 (0.90 to 3.68)0.282
  At least once a week7/36 (19.4)2.00 (0.78 to 513)
  At least once a month2/25 (8.0)0.72 (0.16 to 3.28)
  Less then once a month3/14 (21.4)2.26 (0.58 to 8.76)
  Never21/195 (10.8)1
Sexual behaviour
 Number of partners preceding month‡
  0–143/381 (11.3)10.018
  ≥27/25 (28.0)3.06 (1.21 to 7.74)
 Condom use§
  Always11/72 (15.3)1.30 (0.63 to 2.68)0.473
  Never or inconsistent41/337 (12.2)1
 Number of partners in the preceding 12 months
  0–137/309 12.0)10.582
  ≥215/107 (14.0)1.20 (0.63 to 2.28)
 Ethnic sexual mixing
  Reported only sexual partners from own ethnic group32/284 (11.3)10.267
  Reported at least one sexual partner from another ethnic group20/132 (15.2)1.41 (0.77 to 2.57)
 Sex in exchange for money or goods¶
  No47/396 (11.9)10.038
  Yes4/12 (33.3)3.71 (1.08 to 12.81)
  • *ORs in the multivariable model are adjusted for all factors for which adjusted ORs are shown. In the final model, 416 participants were included.

  • †Fifty-seven missings.

  • ‡Ten missings.

  • §Seven missings.

  • ¶Eight missings.

  • NAAT, nucleic acid amplification test; STI, sexually transmitted infection.