Table 1

Clinical characteristics of the three study states over the 2010 to 2014 period

ColoradoNew YorkOklahomaP value
Total population5 197 23719 594 5993 819 383
Total admissions2 088 90911 726 2832 334 988
Total admissions/1,000 population402±0.27598±0.17611±0.400.0001
Demographics
 Age – yr45±2849±2848±280.0001
 Male – no. (%)870 573 (42)5 087 181 (41)954 848 (43)0.0001
 Race – no. (%)0.0001
 White1 548 099 (74)6 406 582 (55)1 879 727 (81)
 Black102 444 (5)2 083 366 (18)202 420 (9)
 Native American13 143 (1)36 216 (0.3)131 714 (6)
 Other425 223 (20)3 200 119 (27)121 127 (5)
Lifestyle
 Median household income, US$ (quartiles for patient postal code) – no. (%)0.0001
 Quartile 1617 537 (30)3 087 192 (28)No data
 Quartile 2558 760 (27)2 623 087 (24)
 Quartile 3470 051 (23)2 673 153 (24)
 Tobacco use – no. (%)251 566 (12)1 717 940 (10)235 685 (14)0.0001
 Alcohol abuse – no. (%)112 715 (5)652 608 (6)71 931 (3)0.0001
NAS diagnoses
 Non-seminoma type testicular germ cell cancer – no. (%)405 (0.02)2487 (0.02)480 (0.02)0.0001
 Acute myocardial infarction – no. (%)39 513 (1.9)271 285 (2.3)60 413 (2.6)0.0001
 Brain haemorrhage – no. (%)10 963 (0.5)58 278 (0.5)10 245 (0.4)0.0001
 Ischaemic stroke – no. (%)27 986 (1.3)194 478 (1.7)45 602 (2)0.0001
 Metabolic syndrome & diabetes – no. (%)294 821 (14)2 301 835 (20)465 353 (20)0.0001
 Pre-diabetes – no. (%)42 544 (2)73 407 (0.6)24 246 (1)0.0001
 Bronchitis – no. (%)65 265 (3)429 230 (4)131 343 (6)0.0001
 Motor vehicle accidents – no. (%)14 941 (0.7)59 686 (0.5)13 692 (0.6)0.0001
 Overdose injury – no. (%)10 933 (0.5)40 226 (0.3)12 147 (0.5)0.0001
 Substance use disorder – no. (%)158 244 (7.6)974 856 (8.3)109 305 (4.7)0.0001
 Anxiety disorders – no. (%)131 426 (6.4)595 478 (5.2)139 627 (6.1)0.0001
 Anxiety disorders (except social anxiety) – no. (%)51 913 (2.5)283 280 (2.4)65 279 (2.8)0.0016
 Bipolar disorders – no. (%)52 348 (2.5)287 735 (2.5)61 411 (2.6)0.0001
 Depressive disorders – no. (%)213 851 (10)827 932 (7)190 083 (8)0.0001
 Schizophrenia or other psychoses – no. (%)53 652 (2.6)352 533 (3)68 385 (2.9)0.0001
 Positive symptoms of schizophrenia (ie, hallucinations) – no. (%)2653 (0.1)9482 (0.1)3531 (0.2)0.0001
 Post-traumatic stress disorder – no. (%)28 582 (1.4)75 608 (0.6)17 101 (0.7)0.0001
 Social anxiety disorder – no. (%)295 (0.01)1090 (0.01)135 (0.01)0.0295
 Suicide – no. (%)4957 (0.2)15 646 (0.1)4407 (0.2)0.0001
 Low offspring birth weight – no. (%)2842 (0.1)7462 (0.1)1742 (0.1)0.0002
 Maternal pregnancy complications – no. (%)39 343 (1.9)144 353 (1.2)40 938 (1.8)0.0001
 Unemployment/low income – no. (%)3134 (0.2)76 789 (0.7)730 (0.03)0.0001
 Nausea or vomiting – no. (%)63 806 (3)16 211 (1.4)58 706 (2.5)0.0001
 Chronic pain – no. (%)140 209 (6)234 160 (2)123 563 (5)0.0001
 Spasticity – no. (%)5759 (0.3)12 517 (0.1)5371 (0.2)0.0001
 Short-term sleep – no. (%)652 (0.03)3364 (0.03)357 (0.02)0.0001
 Tourette syndrome – no. (%)428 (0.02)2784 (0.02)336 (0.01)0.0001
 Increased appetite & weight gain – no. (%)1022 (0.05)3017 (0.03)651 (0.03)0.0001
  • Admission diagnoses listed were based on those found influenced by cannabis in the 2017 NAS review.3 Substance use disorder includes dependence or abuse of alcohol, tobacco or other illicit drug. All variables pertain to the 2010 to 2014 period. Plus-minus values are means±SD. No. (%) indicates number of admissions with a specific demographical/lifestyle characteristic or NAS diagnosis (% of total admissions). A P value less than 0.05 is considered statistically significant. NAS, National Academy of Science; yr, years.